The Fourth Crusade

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  • Created on: 08-04-14 09:47
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  • The Fourth Crusade
    • Why was it called?
      • Pope Innocent III wanted to liberate J + improve religious zeal, unite E+W Churches increase power + have large amount of control over crusade
      • Third Crusade failed in its objective, organising 4th took longer than expected though
    • Why did people join?
      • Boniface of Montferrat - nephew = B5 + bro = Conrad (King of J) Wanted to take Byzantine land
      • Enrico Dandolo (Doge of Venice), v.wealthy + economically motivated, regain Venetian land (Zara) + trading rights w/B's. Wanted revenge from B's attacks twice.
      • Count Theobold of Champagne (son of King H) adventure + rep. but v. religious
      • Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, supporter of Phil II + Theobald, keen to prove himself
      • Count Baldwin of Flanders, Count Louis of Blois + Hugh of St Pol all had supported Rich against Phil II, go crusading to avoid war w/Phill II, penance for fighting against Phil II. Could gain mil. rep. in E
      • Prince Angelus (Alexius IV), father thrown of throne by uncle + blinded, wanted to get throne back though helping crusaders
    • Why did it divert to Byzantium 1203?
      • Treaty of Venice 1201 agreed to as crusaders would have to have help from sea power if they were travelling by sea
        • But crusaders couldn't pay Dandolo, over-estimated no.s so ED suggested they help him take Zara (rebelled against Venetian rule), first diversion
      • Whilst in Zara, Boniface + Angelus arrived, said he would pay for rest of crusade if they helped him take Constantinopole
    • Why were they able to take then sack Constantinopole 1204?
      • It wasn't as easy as Angelus had said, but Alexius III army wasn't as well trained/brave
      • Alexius III fled, Isaac + Alexius IV (Angelus) made co-rulers of Byzantine Empire. However in order to pay Venetians/ crusaders had to increase tax, v.unpopular w/people, led to riots against Westerners/ crusaders
      • Byzantine noble Murzuphlus led coup d'etat against Alexius IV, Greek army set fire to Venetian fleet. Imprisoned Isaac I + Alexius IV + negotiated w/crusaders asking them to leave
        • Crusaders wanted the money they were promised by A IV or his release, Murzuphlus refused, strangled A IV, made himself Alexius V
          • So crusaders decided to pay ED again to help them take Constan. all booty to be shared, decided it was Holy War to please soldiers, after, many went home with their treasures
    • What were the effects?
      • Drew attention away from Holy Land, Latin Byzantine state until 1261


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