The design theory

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  • The Design Argument
    • Aquinas' 5th way
      • Everything works to some purpose or regularity and follows natural laws
      • Even things that have no rational powers still have a purpose. They must be directed by something external to themselves.
      • Example: The arrow can only be directed to its goal by an archer
      • Therefore there is an intelligent being which directs everything towards a purpose. this is God.
    • Paley
      • Design qua purpose- evidence shows design in the universe around us.
      • Everything seems to have been made to fulfil a purpose.E.g. the eye is designed to fulfil its purpose
      • Analogy of the watch- when looking at a watch it is unreasonable to think that the intricacies of it are undesigned- same with the universe.
    • Probability Argument
      • Swinburne- The fact that the universe is so orderly suggests design rather than chance
      • What is more probable design or chance ?
    • Anthropic and Aesethic principles
      • The universe could be chaotic but it is not and instead it is set up in such a way to enable life to evolve.
      • Beauty- Tennant Humans posses the ability to appreciate the beauty of their surroundings- not needed for survival, could be evidence of a divine creator
    • Criticisms
      • Hume :  comparing God and the universe to mechanical things is not valid. Humans don't have proper knowledge of creation of worlds - prototype ?
      • Mill: Argued that because there is evil and suffering in the world then the designer cannot have been all powerful, all knowing and all loving
      • Epicurean Hypothesis: At the time of creation the universe was just as mass of particles in chaos, but gradually this evolved into order. The universe is eternal- must have produced something ordered.
      • Darwin:The world is not a result of an intelligent designer but as a result of natural selection.

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