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  • The Sino-Japanese War
    • Course of war until 1941
      • By 1938 fertile areas of Chinese in J hands
        • Nanking & Beijing - occupied leader Chinese nationalists
          • General Chiang Kai Shek
          • Forced to leave
          • Negotiate alliance - Chinese Communists
            • Whom waging Chinese Civil war since 1927
          • Territories occupied least advanced in China economically
      • Japanese installed puppet government in Beijing 1938
        • Attracted little loyalty
        • Official subject - guerrilla attacks by nationalists
      • By 1940 - from between two forces extended 300km
        • Japanese achieved military success
          • Overextended themselves
          • Fighting reached deadlock
      • End 1941 - Japanese lost 185,000 troops
        • Up to 1mill J troops tied down to D until 1945
    • Reactions of the Great Powers
      • B & F
        • Emphasised flimsiness of B & F power
        • Neither afford hostilities Europe & Far East
        • Tension mounted on Europe
          • B & F governs avoided confrontation with J
        • 1937 - Senior F diplomat informed US ambassador - F take not action against J
      • USA
        • Equally reluctant take military measures
        • Spreading conflict enable Pr. R begin slow realigning the US
          • Democracies against Rome-Berlin Axis & Japan
        • Dec 1937 B & US ship attacked J planes
          • Pr. R sent US naval officer discuss future co-operation B & US fleets
        • Pr. R criticised compromising US neutrality
      • USSR
        • Stalin X wish involved
        • S rejected Chiang Kai-shek;s request Soviet invasion of Manchukuo
          • Feared Nazi-G exploit - opportunity attack in west
            • USSR - weakened by the purges eliminated most Red Army's senior officers
        • S didn't want J dominate C
          • Threaten Soviet-controlled Mongolia
          • S urged C Coumminsts & Nationalists create united front against Japense continued supply Chiang Kai-Skek with weapons & aircraft
        • 1938 Soviet reinforce - USSR-Mongolian border
          • Led - armed clash lasting 2 weeks at Lake Khason
            • Tension escalated - J troops occupied disputed territory
              • Led - major confrontation- tanks & aircraft ended a truce signed 15th September 1939
      • Germany
        • New Nazi foreign minister - Ribbentrop ordered H create
          • 'world triangle' foreign alliances with J & I- maximum pressure on F & B empires
            • J welcomed policy - hope - discourage US & R intervention in C
        • R's eyes start 'world triangle' - Dec 1936 - G & J signed - Anti-Comintern Pact - joined year later I
        • 1938 J policy paid off - Nazi govern cancelled aid to Chiang Kai-shek & recognised Manchukuo
        • Nazi-Soviet Pact undo propaganda advantages of Ant-Comintern Pact for J
          • However, J - chance take over F & Dutch colonies in Far East
            • Aims welcomed by H & R - realisation - his 'world triangle' concept force B make peace
              • 27th September 1940 Tripartite Pact I & J negotiated

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