The Recovery of Tsarist Power

  • Created by: Tori
  • Created on: 21-04-20 14:45
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  • The recovery of Tsarist power
    • By December 1905, the Tsar still faced opposition.
      • Lenin had returned from exile in November 1905.
        • He urged the St Petersburg Soviet to stage an armed uprising against the Tsar.
    • The Returning Troops
      • The end of the Russo-Japanese War allowed the Tsar's government to send the Russian army to crush workers' protests in the cities.
        • Consequently, Nicholas ordered 100,000 troops to be recalled in order to end the Revolution.
      • The returning troops were loyal to the Tsar because they had not been exposed to the radical propaganda.
        • Additionally, the Ministry of War had given in to the demands of soldiers in order to win back loyalty.
          • Included:
            • Army pay was doubled.
            • Soldiers' rations were increased.
            • New clothing was issued.
            • Soldiers were given bedding and handkercheifs which were useful for first aid.
          • Thus, mutinies in the army all but ceased in December.
      • Crushing the St Petersburg Soviet
        • In mid-December the government moved against the Soviet in a series of steps:
          • 1) The Okhrana arrested leading figures from the Soviet.
          • 2) It declared Martial Law.
          • 3) The police and army stormed factories and the meeting place of the Soviet, arresting rebel workers.
        • Was it the end of the Revolution?
          • Unrest continued into 1906.
            • However, the supression of the St Petersburg and Moscow Soviets destroyed the last hope of overthrowing the Tsar at this time.
    • Why did the Tsar Survive?
      • Several reasons the Tsar survived:
        • Most of the 1905 protests were unco-ordinated.
        • The October Manifesto successfully divided opposition.
        • Concessions to soldiers won the loyalty of the returning army.
        • The workers of St Petersburg and Moscow were overwhelmed by the force of the returning troops.
        • The Tsar had some popular support from the Union of Russian People and the Black Hundreds.
    • The extent of the recovery of Tsarist power
      • By December it was clear that the Tsar has support of the army.
        • This meant that he was able tocrush rebellions by workers and peasants.
      • The Electoral Law
        • The extent of the Tsar's victory was clear from the Electoral Law of December 1905.
          • The law failed to give liberals what they wanted.
            • Specifically:
              • The Duma would be selected by indirect elections.
              • Soldiers, women and some workers were not given the vote.
              • Votes weren't equal.
                • The electoral system gave more power to the rich.
            • The Electoral Law didn't give what was promised in the October Manifesto.
    • Partial Recovery
      • Although he want back on some promises, the Autocracy was not fully restored.
      • The reforms brought in at the end of 1905 placed limits on the Tsar's power.
        • Included:
          • Political Parties and trade unions were legalised.
            • This allowed the formation of groups that could oppose the Tsar.
          • The new Duma (introduced in 1906) could veto laws proposed by the Tsar.
            • This ended his complete authority over the law.
          • Peasant protest and protests in countries like Poland and Finland continued into 1906.
            • Thus, the Tsar had not-re-established full control over the whole of the Empire.
            • The Tsar had been forced to end his policy of Russification in Finland to end the Finish nationalist protests.
              • Lack of complete power/control over the area.
    • Was it a revolution?
      • The events of 1905 are often refered to as a 'revolution'.
        • Although, Marxists argue that the key feature of a revolution is that it transfers power from one class to another.
          • As the 1905 revolution didn't do this, some wouldn't call it a revolution.
      • Other historians view a revolution as a fundamental and irreversible change.
        • This happened as the Tsar gave up part of his power, thus some say it was a revolution.


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