The Ozone Story - Complete Mindmap

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  • Created by: Oliver_C
  • Created on: 02-06-19 12:02
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  • The Ozone Story
    • Electronegativity
      • Pauling Scale
        • Fluorine has the highest electroneg.
        • Oxygen, Chlorine and Nitrogen are also very electroneg.
        • Electronegativity increases across periods, and decreases down groups.
      • Polarisation of Covalent Bonds
        • homonuclear molecules are non-polar because they have equal electronegativities
        • the bonding electrons will be pulled to the side  of the molecule with the highest electronegativity
          • this causes the electrons to be spread unevenly across the bond, so a partial charge is formed on each of the atoms
        • difference in electroneg. causes a dipole bond to be formed.
          • bonds are polar if difference in electronegativity is > 0.4
        • if polar bonds are arranged in ways which point them in opposite directions, they cancel each other out
          • generally, symmetry
      • the ability of an atom to attract the bonding electrons in a covalent bond
    • Intermolecular Bonds
      • Hydrogen Bonding
        • only happens when hydrogen is bonded to oxygen, fluorine or nitrogen because of their high electroneg.
        • bond is so polarised that the hydrogen form weak bonds with lone pairs of electrons on F, N or O atoms on other molecules
        • The H2O molecules in ice are arranged so that there is the maximum # of hydrogen bonds. This lattice structure wastes a lot of space
          • therefore, ice is much less dense than water, and thus will float in water
        • strongest IMB
        • high MP and BPs due to strong H bonds. They require extra energy to break these bonds. Soluble in water because they form H bonds w H20.
      • Instantaneous Dipole- Induced Dipole
        • electrons in charge clouds are moving around very quickly, it's likely that more electrons are on one side at a time - instantaneous dipole
        • This instantaneous dipole can induce another dipole on another molecule
        • dipoles are continually being created and destroyed. the overall effect of this is atoms are generally attracted to each ther
        • Shape affects strength of IMBs
          • longer the carbon chain - a bigger electron cloud so a stronger instantaneous dipole.
          • Branched Chain - can't pack molecules together closely so reduces IMBs
          • Mr increases instantaneous dipole bonds. Bigger molecule, bigger electron cloud so bigger IMB
          • bigger surface area = stronger IMBs because a greater electron cloud is exposed
      • Permanent Dipole-Permanent Dipole
        • caused by the slightly positive and negative sides of molecules attracting each other
        • Polarity Experiment - charged rod next to a jet of polar liquid. The liquid will be attracted to the rod.
    • Rates
      • Collision Theory
        • they must collide with the exactly correct orientation
        • must collide with sufficient energy (activation energy) for particles to react
        • you can give particles extra energy by heating it
      • Boltzmann Distributions
        • curve starts at (0,0) because no particles have 0 KE.
        • A few molecules have low KE, most particles have moderate KE, and a few have high KE.
        • Increasing Temperature
          • KE will increase and particles will move faster. So a greater proportion of particles will have the activation energy
          • Peak moves down but higher proportion of particles in activation energy area (shifts to right)
        • Catalyst - shifts the activation energy line left
      • Homogeneous Catalysts
        • same state as the reactants
        • Untitled
    • Haloalkanes
    • Ozone and the atmosphere

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