The Kidney and osmoregulation

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  • the kidney and osmoregulation
    • animals are either osmoregulators or osmoconformers
      • osmorality
        • solute concentration of a solution
      • osmoconformers
        • internal solute concentration is similar to the concentration of solutes in the environment
    • the maplighian tubule system in insects and the kidney carry out osmoregulation and removal of nitrogenous wastes
    • the composition of blood in the renal artery is different from that in the renal vein
      • renal artery - toxins, excretory waste products, excess water, excess salt
    • the ultrastructure of the glomerulus and Browman's capsule facilitate ultrafiltration
      • fluid forced out is glomerular filtrate
      • ultrafiltration - separation of particles
      • Sodium, cloride ions, glucose, urea, proteins
      • fenestrations - allow fluid to escapebut not blood cells
      • basement membrane - negatively charged glycoproteins - prevents plasma proteinsfrom being filtered
      • podocytes - forms the inner wall
    • the proximal convoluted tubule selectively reabsorbs useful substances by active transport
      • sodium ions - active transport
      • chloride ions - charge gradients, active transport
      • glucose - co transported
      • water - solute concentration gradient - osmosis
    • The loop of Henle maintains hypertonic conditions in the medulla
      • to create a gradient of solute concentration in the medulla
      • ascending limb - sodium ions pumped out
        • water is retained in the filtrate
      • ascending limb - water is pumped out
    • the length of the loop of Henle is positively correlated with the need for water conservation in animals
    • ADH controls reabsorption of water in the collecting duct
      • solute concentration is too low - relatively little water is reabsorbed
        • large volume of urine is produced
      • solute concentration is too high, ADH is secreted to make walls more permeable to water
        • small volume of urine


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