Kidney and Ultrafiltration

  • Created by: Lotto65
  • Created on: 13-10-17 17:14
What are the two functions of the kidney?
Excretion and osmoregulation
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What do the cortex and medulla of the kidney contain?
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What are nephrons?
Narrow tubes
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What does the renal pelvis consist of?
Spongy tissue into which urine drains from collecting ducts
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How can you tell the difference between the renal vein and the renal artery?
Renal vein has wider lumen (diameter)
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What is the order of structures that comprise a nephron?
Bowman's capsule, glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct
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Which sections of the nephron tend to be in the medulla?
Loop of henle and main part of collecting duct
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What are the arterioles coming in and out of the glomerulus?
Afferent and efferent arterioles
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What is the difference in structure between the afferent and efferent arterioles?
The lumen of the efferent arteriole is much smaller to create a high pressure
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What do the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule do?
Produce a filtrate from the blood
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What is the name of the process that causes a filtrate to be produced by the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule?
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What is the process called to describe the function of the PCT?
Selective reabsorption
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What does the PCT do?
Transfers useful substances from the filtrate back into the blood
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What does the loop of henle do?
Water reabsorption to establish high solute concentrations in the medulla to create hypertonic urine
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What does the DCT do?
Adjusts individual solute concentrations of the blood and pH of blood
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What process does the collecting duct do?
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How does the collecting duct osmoregulate?
Varies amount of water reabsorbed
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What is the glomerulus?
A knot-like ball of blood capillaries
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How much plasma do the glomerular capillaries let escape?
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Why are the glomerular capillaries so leaky to plasma?
Very high pressure due to the efferent arteriole being narrower than the afferent arteriole; many large pores in the capillary walls (fenestrations)
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What sort of molecules do the glomerular capillary fenestrations allow through?
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Name two other means of filtration in the gomerulus
Basement membrane and fenestration slits between the foot processes of podocytes
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What is the basement membrane and how does it work?
A gel on the outside of the capillaries that contains a mesh of protein fibres with small gaps
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What do the foot processes of podocyte cells do?
Wrap around the capillaries
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What does the gomerular filtrate contain after the glomerulus?
All substances in the blood plasma apart from plasma proteins (too big)
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What is the name of the tube connecting the kidneys to the bladder?
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What makes up the basement membrane?
Collagen and negatively charged glycoproteins
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What does the capillary endothelium prevent?
The entrance of blood cells into the filtrate
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What are the names of the foot extensions on podocytes?
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Give examples of substances filtered out of the blood in the glomerulus
Urea, glucose, water, salts and amino acids
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What does the urethra do?
Carries urine from the bladder to the outside
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True/ false: The renal pelvis is hollow
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What does the efferent arteriole do?
Connects the glomerular capillaries to the peritubular capillary
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The high pressure in the glomerulus...
Increases the efficiency of ultrafiltration
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What is ultrafiltration?
Filtration at a molecular level
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What is present in the renal artery in higher amounts?
Toxins and other substances ingested and absorbed by not fully metabolised (betain pigments and drugs), nitrogenous waste like urea, excess water, excess salt
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Where does the excess water come from?
Food absorbed and aerobic respiration
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Where do the excess salts come from?
Absorbed food
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Why do you remove salt and water when they are not metabolic waste products?
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Blood in the renal vein has a more constant concentration. Why?
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Substances in the urine are present in which blood vessel?
Renal artery
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Which renal blood vessel has less oxygen? Why?
Renal vein because kidney metabolism requires oxygen
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What substance increases in the renal vein?
Carbon dioxide - waste product of kidney metabolism
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Why is there less glucose in the renal vein than the renal artery?
Some is used for kidney metabolism even though you would expect all in the renal artery to be reabsorbed
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Why should plasma proteins remain in the same concentrations in the renal blood vessels?
They are not filtered
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The presence of what in the urine indicates abnormal kidney function?
Plasma proteins
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What makes ultrafiltration good in the capillaries as well as high pressure?
Particularly permeable capillaries
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Particles below which atomic mass unit can pass through the glomerulus?
65,000 atomic mass units
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What affects the permeability of larger molecules for ultrafiltration?
Shape and charge
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Which two substances always remain in the blood?
Proteins and blood cells
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What escapes through fenestrations?
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What is the function of the basement membrane?
Covers and supports the wall of capillaries
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What does the basement membrane prevent being filtered out?
Plasma proteins (due to their size and negative charges)
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What do the podocyte foot processes allow to be filtered through?
Only small molecules
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What do the cortex and medulla of the kidney contain?



Card 3


What are nephrons?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What does the renal pelvis consist of?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How can you tell the difference between the renal vein and the renal artery?


Preview of the front of card 5
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