The Haber Process for the Production of Ammonia

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  • The Haber Process for the Production of Ammonia
    • N2(g)+3H2(g)
    • reversible reaction with Fe(s) catalyst
      • exothermic reaction
    • = 2NH3(g)
    • Optimum Conditions
      • high pressure
        • because there are more gas molecules in the reactants than the products
        • this means equilibrium will shift to the right to oppose this change so more products are formed
      • low temperature
        • because the forward reaction is exothermic
        • equilibrium will shift to the right to oppose this changes so more products are formed
    • Actual Conditions
      • 200 atmospheres
        • because high pressures are dangerous, hard and expensive to contain and lots of energy is required
        • however, this pressure is enough to still shift equilibrium to the right
      • 450°C
        • this is because low temperatures would slow down the rate at which ammonia is produced
        • this temperature allows the rate of reaction to be worthwhile aswell as still shifting equilibrium to the right

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