Industrial Processes

This is a summary of The Haber Process and The Manufacture of Ethanol.

For the AQA syllabus, you will need to apply le chataliers principle and the ideas of equilibrium to all sorts of equations, so make sure you learn this.

The main things you need to learn about these 2 processes is the catalyst used, the ways it's manufactured and the temperature and pressure.  

Hope it helps XD

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The Haber Process
You need to know about the conditions for the Haber Process, the equation and how
conditions effect the position of equilibrium.
450 degrees Celsius
200 atm
Iron Catalyst
Because the reaction is exothermic, the lower the temperature, the higher the yield. But
low temperatures would make the reaction too slow, so a compromise temperature is
Because there are 4:2 ratio of moles, high pressures shift equilibria to the right, to make
more ammonia, but this is expensive to build and maintain the plant, so a compromise
pressure is used.
An iron catalyst is used to lower the activation energy of the reaction and therefore
increase the rate at which equilibrium is reached. But this does not alter the position of
equilibrium, it increases the rate of the production of products and reactants equally.
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The nitrogen is gathered from the air and the hydrogen is gathered from natural gas.
These go in a 1:3 ratio (this is shown by the picture at the top of the page).
Ammonia is collected by...
Liquefying it. It's melting point is much lower than hydrogen or nitrogen, so it can be
separated by condensing off as a liquid.…read more

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There is a 2:1 ratio of moles. An increase in pressure means an increase in ethanol yield,
this is because the system tries to oppose the change by reducing the pressure, so
equilibrium shifts to the side with fewer moles to try and reduce the pressure, therefore
creating more ethanol.
Phosphoric (V) acid is used. It's supported by a solid silicon dioxide support, which is
washed away with water, making it useless.…read more


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