The Haber Process

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  • The Haber Process
    • Produces ammonia which is used to make fertilisers
    • Nitrogen+ Hydrogen --> Ammonia (+Heat)
      • Reactants arent too expensive or difficult to obtain
        • Nitrogen obtained from the air
        • Hydrogen mainly comes from reacting methane from steam to form hydrogen and carbon dioxide
        • Reactants are passed over an iron catalyst
          • High temperatures and pressures are needed
            • The reaction is reversible so some of the ammonia produced converts back to hydrogen and nitrogen and it eventually reaches a dynamic equillibrium
    • Ammonia is formed as a gas but is cooled in a condenser
      • Ammonia produced is then used to make ammonium nitrate - a nitrogen rich fertiliser
    • The forward reaction is exothermic which means increasing the temperature will move equilibrium in the wrong way so the yield would be better at lower temperatures
      • And from this, slower reactions means slower rate of reaction
    • Higher pressures move the position of equilibrium to the products which maximises the percentage yield


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