TB6 P&C Lecture 1; Models of Attention

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  • TB6 Lecture 1; Models of attention
    • Key phenomena of attentional processes
      • Resource constraints
        • Limited neural output
        • Selective attention!
          • Demonstrated through dichotic listening/ shadowing tasks
            • Cherry (1953), no semantic analysis of unattended channels; cross-channel attention cant be divided
          • Divided attention studies
            • Channel selection
              • The mechanical constraints (ear) defines the channel
              • Channel switching is hard
      • Processing constraints
        • Limited mental resource allocation
        • Selective attention!
          • Demonstrated through dichotic listening/ shadowing tasks
            • Cherry (1953), no semantic analysis of unattended channels; cross-channel attention cant be divided
          • Divided attention studies
            • Channel selection
              • The mechanical constraints (ear) defines the channel
              • Channel switching is hard
    • Major theories of focused and divided attention
      • Early-selection models
        • The selection process occurs early in the perceptual system; operating on a perceptual rather than sematic filter
        • Info is held in a 'temporary store', and selected for further processing on the basis of physical characteristics
          • Info is easily lost if channel switching expected!
        • Broadbent's (1958) Filter model
          • Key features
            • Short term store (analysis of physical)
            • Selective filter; selects stimuli to enter further processing
            • Limited capacity channel; SERIAL. Time allocation for stimuli, affected by amount of info
          • Principles
            • Operates alongside the limited nervous system capacity
              • Can be overcome to some extent with rehearsel
            • Selection based on channel input (PHYSICAL FEATURES)
              • Channel switching takes time
            • TEMPORARY store of info
          • STIMULUS set selection is more effective than RESPONSE set
          • Issues
            • Does not consider divided attention
            • Results contradictory to channel switching idea; e.g pps can hear own name in unattended channel
              • Split-span procedures
              • Filter attenuation model
      • Late-Selection models
        • Deutsch & Deutsch; all messages analysed to pattern recognition; selection based on meaning
          • Stroop tasks
        • Concepts
          • Filtering; physical basis
          • Categorising; processing only occurs if stimulus belongs to a 'class'
          • Pigeon Holing; after categorisation, members of the category selected from bias rather than features
        • Kahnemans (1973) capacity model
          • Limited amount of general purpose processing capacity
            • Due to either TOP down or BOTTOM up driven processes
          • Inherent difficulty and experience biases allocation
            • Enduring dispositions and intentions
          • States dual task decrements are due to limited resource allocation rather than task interference
        • Lavies Perceptual Load Theory
          • If load on perceptual analysis is slight, filtering does not take place and targets AND non-targets are processed. When full load, capacity dedicated to targets
      • An intergrated model?
        • Both selective filters and resource allocation
        • The controlled parallel scheme
          • As long as load does not exceed available resources, parallel processing occurs

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