Subcultural Theories on Crime and Deviance

All the subcultural theories on crime and deviance.

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  • Subcultural Theories...
    • Chicago School
      • Ethnographic stud, growth of population of 10,000 in 1860 to 2,000,000 in 1910,
      • Suggest 'nothing' wrong with deviants, simply see the world differently.
    • Albert Cohen
      • Status frustration
        • Commit crimes to gain status
        • Committed usually by those from a deprived background with poor job oppertunities.
        • Status is usually achieved or denied at school through streaming.
          • Top rewards, lower sets feel 'stupid' and branded 'failures'.
          • Lower set boys therefore develop their own subculture.
            • These revolve around violence, rudeness and stealing etc.
          • It is a collective responce to status frustration, it gives them a set of values to compete for status amoung peers as a way of getting back into society.
    • Walter Miller
      • Working class juvienile delinquency, acting out mainstream values of the working class subculture.
      • Have developed 'focal concerns' which is giving meaning to their lives outside work.
      • Living out focal concerns e.g.seeing violence as acceptable, compensate for boredom.
      • Simular to New Right and Charles Murray
    • Cloward and Ohlin
      • Developed from Merton's Strain,illigitimate oppertunity structures, could be seen a regular 'career' to commit crime.
        • CRIMINAL; sucessful role models, a 'ladder',that mirrors a legitimate business in specific roles and promotion.
        • CONFLICT; gangs, territorial/respect driven violence. Found in areas lacked organised drive structure, plus increased population turnover. Hard for young people to resist for fear or fun.
        • RETREATIST; turn to alcohol or drugs if can't do previous2, turn to burglary and substance abuse.
      • No talk of Female crime.
      • What about domestic and child abuse?
    • People commit crimes because they share different values to that of the rest of society.
      • They have altered or amended to justify criminal behaviour, so form subcultures.


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