S&B

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  • Structure and Bonding
    • Ionic Bonding
      • Ions are electrically charged particles formed when atoms lose or gainelectrons. They have the same electronic structures as noble gases
      • Metal atoms form positive ions, while non-metal atoms form negative ions. The strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions are called ionic bonds.
    • Covalent Bonding
      • A covalent bond is a strong bond between two non-metal atoms. It consists of a shared pair of electrons. A covalent bond can be represented by a straight line or dot-and-cross diagram.
      • Hydrogen and chlorine can each form one covalent bond, oxygen two bonds, nitrogen three, while carbon can form four bonds.

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