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    • ELECTROLYSIS- splitting up with electricity
      • Expensive/high temp/a lot of stages/lot of energy
      • Copper metal is purified so it can conduct electricity.
    • DISPLACEMENT reaction- reactive metal will replace less reactive one.
      • REMEMBER: reactivity series!
    • ALLOYS
      • Impurity taken away at BF, SO regular arrangement of atoms-slide over/ iron is soft and easily shaped.
      • Pure iron= too bendy. Iron from BF= brittle+ 4% carbon (impurity)
      • harder than pure metals- different sized atoms-layer is mixed=diffcult to slide over.
    • Reduction with Carbon
      • Oxygen is removed.
      • Anything below Carbon (reactivity series) is extracted,carbon can only take oxygen away from metals,less reactive than itself
      • 2) CaO+ H2O= CA(OH)2  [it's an alkali which is used to neautralise acidic soil.]
        • Used to test for CO2 /if found turns Cloudy.
      • 1)Thermal Decomposition: CaCo3 heated= CaO + CO2
      • 3) Limestone+ Acid= SALT+H20+CO2
      • 3 Building materials made: Cement/Mortar/Concrete
    • [Bioleaching] use of bacteria to seperate copper from copper sulfate.
      • [Phytomining] Growing plants-Soil-Contain Copper./Copper builds up-plant dried and burnt/C collected from ash.
        • DIS: more stages=more energy involved. // slow process
          • ADV: carbon neutral
      • ADV: copper from low grade ore.
        • DIS: very slow
    • Fractional Distillation/ Fractionating Column
      • Crude oil split into seperate groups of hydrocabron
        • LOW BP /MP& short lenght molecule AT THE TOP (Gas)
          • HIGH BP/MP+long molecule AT THE BOTTOM(solid)
      • ]Complete] all fuels burn since plenty of oxygen
      • [Incomplete/Partial] fuels nomt burn- lack of oxygen-Particulates of soot  produced.
      • ADV: faster//more copper produced
        • DIS: still need electrolysis//greenhouse gases produced
    • METALS: strong/bendy/conductors
      • I.e Copper and it doesnt react w/ water
      • i.e Aluminium  and Titanium=corrosion resistant&low density
        • titanium is stronger.
        • Titanium-hip replacements
          • Aluminium=areoplanes
      • CAN CORRODE!(w/ air/water) /lose strenght&hardness. Protection needed: oil/paint
    • S/SH/SB
    • less heatlhy-increase Cholestrol/block arteries/heart disease
    • Nothing happens in in bromine water
    • CnH2n+2  (many hydrogen atoms as possible)
  • IONIC BONDING {metal+non-m} metal loses electron [+ion] non-m gains it [-ion}
  • COVALENT BONDING {Non-m ONLY} [2 atoms share an electron}
    • COMPOUNDS- diff. properties from their original elements
  • RECYCLING: saves money/conserves resources/less polution-not going to landfills
  • Mining ores
    • Useful prdt made/jobs/money in the area/
    • noise/loss habitat/ruin land/dangerous


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