Sociology - Disability

  • Created by: e.lliecox
  • Created on: 25-06-19 09:36
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  • Disability
    • Definitions
      • Impairment - loss or limitation in functioning of mind or body
      • Disability - impairment prevents people from daily activities
    • Medical Model of Disability
      • Saw people as disabled bc could not take part in same activities as society.
      • Labelled as inferior, disabled abnormal and reliant
    • Social Model of Disability
      • OLIVER - society disables physically impaired bc excluded from full participation by stereotypical attitudes - social construction
    • Social Construction of Disability
      • SHAKESPEARE - social construction, society not take into account needs of societies perceived 'abnormal'
        • No wheelchair access etc
      • Shakespeare - the 'disabled' label more of a problem than actual disability, label leads people to not carry out activities
      • Most UK impaired but rarely classed disabled, not seen as disabled bc society not define as a problem so not create barriers
        • society sees some social aids negatively
      • BARNES - disabled socialised into seeing themselves as disadvantaged so forced to play disabled role
    • Stereotyping and Stigmatisation
      • Media representation- most learn about disability through socialisation, popular views formed through media - negative
      • BARNES - stereotypes include - dependent, unable to contribute society, non sexual, less than human, to be pitied or praised
      • Symbolically annihilated in media - underrepresented and represent one dimensional ways
        • Recent more positive - London Paralympic Games 2012
    • Master Status and Stigmatised Identity
      • Many people with impairments unable to assert their choice of identity (IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT) as other see them primarily as disabled and treat them according to stereotype
      • Disability can become identity where people excluded from society, people will talk to person pushing wheelchair not person in it
        • Result in employment discrimination as employers reluctant to take on disabled, so disabled more likely on welfare benefits and experience poverty
      • Gender has impact - assumed professional disabled women should not have sex as make unsuitable mothers
        • disabled women been forcibly sterilised or child in care
    • Learned Helplessness
      • Stereotypes of being dependent have an impact of the person
      • SCOTT - observed interaction between medical professionals and disabled - blind develop blind personality which involves learned helplessness bc doctors expect them to rely on able bodied people even if don't need to
    • Disability and Capitalism
      • Marxist Finklestein - our negative attitudes bc capitalism emphasises work as source of identity, status and power. Bc capitalism requires healthy and fit workforce, disabled are economic burden and defined as social problem
    • Disability and Resistance
      • Studies suggest disabled people are likely to resist negative definitions of disability
      • Reject medical labels and have positive self image
        • Helped by increased prominence of disabled people in media


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