Sociological views on education, including criticisms

A mind map of all sociological theories on education! including criticisms.

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Sociological views on education...
    • Functionalist
      • Durkheim
        • Linking individual's to society so feel part of the collective conscience.
        • Secondary socialisation of norms and values.
        • Division of labour established through specialised work skills.
      • Parsons
        • Value and fit, teaching universal values and judged against the common standard.
        • Role allocation of pupils matched on there ability, so a valued consensus is reached.
      • Davis and Moore
        • Some individuals have greater talents and so are required in different social positions
        • Most able fit most demanding jobs.
        • Schools identify the most able and ensure they're trained for the demanding jobs
        • Greatest Rewards = Most Able
      • CRITICISMS
        • Interactionalist note that education is a two way process. so not as deterministic.
        • Is there really a shared consensus?
        • Many school subjects are irrelevant and don't teach work skills.
        • Why do class inequalities still persist if schools are meritocratic?
        • Schools crush individuals into conformity.
    • Marxism
      • Louis Althusser
        • Ideological state apparatus.
        • A 'smoke screen' so cannot see inequality and the lie of meritocracy.
      • Bowles and Gintis
        • 1) Correspondence Principle; hierarchy of authority is taught, so we are at the bottom and pushed to behave a certain way so your prepared for work.
        • 2) Social Reproduction; teach future workers to know their place in capitalist society, so learn their role as workers.
        • 3) Hidden Curriculum; what we learn apart from formal lessons, e.g. punctuality. This creates good workers, other examples include hierarchy and discipline.
        • 4) Myth of Meritocracy; middle class students have more opportunity, and teach working class students to blame themselves for social failure rather than society.
      • CRITICISMS
        • Does capitalism want docile workers? They would want people to strive for jobs rather then accept the inevitable.
        • Hidden cirrculum isn't so hidden.
        • Many pupils do not accept treatment by schools and so rebel through choice.
        • Does capitalism really control the curriculum.
        • PAUL WILLIS; saw Bowles and Gintis as being too deterministic and many working class pupils 'reject' schools values and ideology they're still destined for working class jobs.
    • Liberal
      • John Dewey
        • Encourages individuals to develop individual skills, against rote learning and need experimental learning through doing do pupils critical to real world.
      • Ivan Illich
        • Deschooling society, schools and factories and individuality is crushed, should teach with mentors and not learn a stifling curriculum.
    • Social Democratic
      • A.H.Halsey
        • Equality of Opportunity; against free market economy as promotes inequalities.
        • The class system is bad as it produces further inequalities.
      • Theodore .W Shulz
        • Skills and knowledge are a form of capital.
        • more money to be spent on education as increases productivity and efficiency.
        • e.g. Farming, uneducated work force will only produce goods, if educated then can understand better so efficiency and productivity increase.
      • CRITICISMS
        • Schoold fail to teach about work and so don't meet employers requirements
        • Spending too much on higher education limits the support
        • WOOLF; no clear line in spending and economic growth
          • Egypt; spent a lot on education, no growth. Switzerland; rich country yet not a lot spent on education.
    • Neo-liberal and New Right
      • Cubb and Moe
        • Free market economy, parents can only show unhappiness through moving or private schools
        • Those who run education don't want change as it cost money, Government departments encourage spending so they have more money.
        • Private schools are self funding and so if fails is shut down
      • Public Choice theory; everyone acts in own interest.
      • Brown and Lauder
        • Marketization of schools mean competition and choice, so standars increase, this means successful schools stay and failing schools close.
        • Publish school performance so people have more choice.
      • CRITICISMS
        • Education market is unfair as some people have more knowledge on it than others.
        • Raising standards means a higher class divide
        • Cream skimming in popular schools
        • Education is based on exam success when should be on equal skills and knowledge.

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Education resources »