Social perception

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  • Created by: Chloe
  • Created on: 29-04-15 13:39
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  • Social Perception
    • Non verrbal communications: facial expressions, tone of voice, gestures, body positions
    • Brain basis: mirror neurons are linked to empathy and are involuntary
    • Facial expresions of emotion: Darwin - if we evolved then they are universal, Ekman - found support but presented limited stimuli
      • Sending expression of emotion: (1) faces are often blended in that the face registers one emotion & another part of a different emotion (2) people hide true emotion (3) culture rules for display
    • Implicit personality theories: Filling in the blanks - type of scheme people use to group various kinds of personality trains together - can be wrong (stereotypes) - is shared by culture & passed through generations
    • Attribution
      • Casual: Answering why people do why they do - to uncover feelings & traits that are behind their actions - to understand & predict our social world
        • Fritz Heider (1958): people are amateur scientists trying to understand the world
      • Internal: inference that a person is behaving in a certain way because of something about that person
    • The Covariation Model: we notice & think of more than one piece of information when we form judgement (howard kelly)
      • Consenceus info: the extent to which other people behave the same way towards the stimulus
        • Distinctiveness info: information about the extend to which one particular actor behaves in the same way to different stimuli
      • Consistency info: info about the extent to which the behavior between one actor & one stimulus is the same across time & circumstances
    • The Correspondence Bias: the tendency to believe that people behavior matches their dispositions
      • Perceptual salience: the seeming importance of info that is the focus of peoples attention
        • Two step process when me make attributions:  1.make an internal attribution; we assume that a person’s behavior was due to something about that person. 2.attempt to adjust this attribution by considering the situation the person was in. But we often don’t make enough of an adjustment in this second step. 
          • Attribution
            • Casual: Answering why people do why they do - to uncover feelings & traits that are behind their actions - to understand & predict our social world
              • Fritz Heider (1958): people are amateur scientists trying to understand the world
            • Internal: inference that a person is behaving in a certain way because of something about that person
      • Culture & correspondance bias
        • Collectivist cultures:  more sensitive to situational causes of behavior & more likely to rely on situational explanations as long as it is salient
        • Actor/ observer: other peoples behavior = disposition ally caused, my behavior = situation ally caused
        • Self serving attributions: Success = internal, dispositional factors, Failures = external, situational factors.
          • Why do we make them? (1) to maintain our self esteem when we feel we cant improve it (2) to look good (3) to focus our attention
          • Defensive attribution: explanations for behavior that avoid feelings of vulnerability & mortality - bad things happen to only bad people
            • Just world belief: victime of crimes/ accidents are often seen as causing their own fate

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