Social cognition

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  • Created by: Chloe
  • Created on: 28-04-15 22:41
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  • Social Cognition
    • Automatic thinking; thinking that is non-conscious, unintentional, involuntary & effortless
      • Schemas: Mentall structures used to: organize knowledge about that social world around themes of subjects, Encompasses our knowledge about: other people, ourselves, social roles & specific events.
        • Stereotypes: schemes applied to members of a social group, gender or race - are applied rapidly & automatically
        • Schemes as memory guides: help fill in the blanks - memory reconstructions tend to be consistent with one;s schemas
        • Accesability:  The extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of people’s minds and are therefore likely to be used when we are making judgments about the social world.
          • Priming: The process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait, or concept.
          • Something can become accessible for three reasons: 1.Some schemas are chronically accessible due to past experience. 2.Something can become accessible because it is related to a current goal 3. Schemas can become temporarily accessible because of our recent experiences
      • Thinking about something unconsciously helps for better understanding - Dijksterhuis (2004) appartment srtudy
    • Heuristics
      • Judgemental: Mental shortcuts people use to make judgments quickly and efficiently - can be faulty.
        • Availability: A mental rule of thumb whereby people base a judgment on the ease with which they can bring something to mind - what is easiest to remember isn't always correct
          • Impact bias: over estimate the intensity/ duration of their future emotional reactions to events
            • Judgemental: Mental shortcuts people use to make judgments quickly and efficiently - can be faulty.
              • Availability: A mental rule of thumb whereby people base a judgment on the ease with which they can bring something to mind - what is easiest to remember isn't always correct
                • Impact bias: over estimate the intensity/ duration of their future emotional reactions to events
                  • Representatives: mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case
                • Anchoring & Adjustment: mental shortcut whereby people use a number/ value as a starting point and then adjust insufficiently from this anchor
            • Representatives: mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case
          • Anchoring & Adjustment: mental shortcut whereby people use a number/ value as a starting point and then adjust insufficiently from this anchor
      • Controlled social cognition: Thinking that is conscious, intentional, voluntary, and effortful. 
        • Counterfactual thinking: mentally changing some aspect of the past in imagining what might have been - easier to undo mentally = stronger emotional reaction
        • Thought supression: the attempt to avoid thinnking about something we would prefer to forget
          • (2) Operating process: effort ,conscious attempt to distract oneself by finding something else to think about
        • Over confidence barrier: The fact that people usually have too much confidence in the accuracy of their judgments.

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