Social Influence Revision

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  • Social Influence Revision
    • Obedience
      • Milgram
        • 40 male ppts involved in a study on 'how punishment affects learning'
          • the ppts were always the teacher and a confederate was the learner
            • every time the confederate gave a wrong answer, the teacher had to administer an electric shock
              • starting at 15V and increasing to 450V in 15V intervals
              • all ppts went to 300V and 65% administered the full 450V
                • starting at 15V and increasing to 450V in 15V intervals
        • Baumrind- ethics- deception and no right to withdraw
        • Perry- believers and doubters- lack of internal validity
        • Blass- statistical analysis- same thing would happen today- historical validity
      • Situational Factors
        • Proximity
          • proximity study- same room- 40% obedience
          • touch proximity study- 30% obedience
          • experimenter absent study- 21% obedience
        • Location
          • Milgram tried his study in a run-down office in Conneticut
            • 48% delivered full 450V
        • Uniform
          • Bushman
            • female researcher told people in the street to give money to male researcher for expired parking meter
              • police-style uniform- 72% obeyed
              • business executive- 48% obeyed
              • beggar- 52% obeyed
      • Agentic State
        • Self-image
          • people want a positive self image
            • in the agentic state, their self image remains intact as they are carrying out someone else's wishes
        • Binding factors
          • social etiquette keeps you in the agentic state as you don't want to disappoint the researcher
      • Legitimacy of authority
        • power stems from someone's perceived position in a social situation
        • definition of the situation
        • requires an institution
    • Conformity
      • Types of Conformity
        • Compliance
          • gain approval/ avoid disapproval
          • change in public but privately disagree
        • Internalisation
          • acceptance of the group's views
          • examine their own beliefs
          • agree both publicly and privately
          • difficult to distinguish between
            • Compliance
              • gain approval/ avoid disapproval
              • change in public but privately disagree
            • compliance -> internalisation
              • 'I agreed with the group, therefore that must be what I really believe'
            • internalisation -> compliance
              • info forgotten/ new info received so public acceptance disspates
        • Identification
          • want to associate with a group
          • individual accepts the attitude as being right (internalisation)
          • purpose of adopting behaviour is to fit in (compliance)
      • Explanations of Conformity
        • Normative Social Influence
          • involves compliance and the desire to be liked
          • individual must believe they are under surveillance by the group
          • Linkenbach and Perkins
            • adolescents told that most teens don't smoke were less likely to do it too
          • Schultz et al.
            • told hotel guests that 75% of guests reused their towels
              • Untitled
        • Informational Social Influence
          • Internalisation
            • acceptance of the group's views
            • examine their own beliefs
            • agree both publicly and privately
            • difficult to distinguish between
              • compliance -> internalisation
                • 'I agreed with the group, therefore that must be what I really believe'
              • internalisation -> compliance
                • info forgotten/ new info received so public acceptance disspates
          • desire to be right
          • more likely in ambiguous situations
          • Wittenbrink and Henley
            • exposed ppts to negative info about african americans
              • ppts reported negative beliefs about a black individual
          • Fein et al.
            • ppts saw people's reactions during a presidential debate
              • this produced large shifts in ppts' judgements
      • Variables affecting conformity
        • Asch
          • 3 lines and a standard line
            • 12 critical trials- confederates instructed to give wrong answer
              • conformity rate 33%
              • control condition- errors made just 1% of the time
                • ppts demonstrated compliance
              • 20% conformed on all 12 critical trials
          • research conducted during an anti-communist period
            • people more likely to conform
          • Mori and Arai gave ppts glasses- 3 had the same but 1 had different glasses, so they saw the stimulus material differently
            • for femailes, similar results to Asch were obtained
              • confederates acted convincingly
        • Group size
          • conformity increases as group size increases from 1/2 to 3 people, but further increases don't have much of an effect
        • Unanimity
          • conformity levels dropped from 33% to 5.5% when ppts had the support of another ppt or a confederate giving the right answer
        • Difficulty of task
          • those more confident in their ability to do the task are less likely to conform (Lucas et al.)
      • Social roles
        • SPE
          • 24 stable male students randomly assigned to prisoner or guard
            • prisoners allowed 3 meals and 3 supervised toilet trips a day and 2 visits a week
            • guards given uniforms, clubs, whistles and wore reflective sunglasses
            • over the first few days guards grew increasingly tyrannical
              • they forgot it was a psychological study
                • guards conformed even when unaware of being watched
                • prisoner asked for 'parole' rather than to be withdrawn from the study
                  • 5 prisoners released early.
                • study terminated after just 6 days due to the intervention of a postgraduate student
          • ethical- followed the guidelines of the Stanford university ethics comittee
          • some guards were good- conformity not automatic, conclusions not firm
          • Banuazizi and Movahedi- students could figure out the purpose and change their behaviour
          • real life relevance- Abu Ghraib 2003/2004
        • BBC
          • 2 prisoners, 1 guard
            • prisoners worked together to overcome guard's authority
          • ethical- minimised ethics as much as possible

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