sleep restoration explanation

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  • restoration explanation
    • sws
      • Growth hormone – in kids stimulates growth and in adulthood enables protein synthesis and cell growth
        • Vital proteins are fragile must be constantly renewed
          • GH secreted in pulses throughout the day more so at night
            • Sassin et al – when sleep-wake cycles are reversed by 12h the release of GH also reversed
              • GH release controlled by neuro-mechanism related to SWS
                • GH and SWS +vely correlated so both decrease with old age
    • immune system
      • SWS associated with reduced immune system functioning – Krueger et al
        • Immune system consists of proteins and molecules that are regenerated in SWS cell growth
    • REM sleep
      • Brain growth
        • REM proportional to the immaturity of the infant at birth
          • Platypus 8h REM because immature, dolphin almost none – Segel
            • Relationship between neural development and REM
    • neurotransmitter
      • Segel and Rogawske – REM allows break in neurotransmitter release permits neurons to regain sensitivity allows body to function properly
        • Support comes from actions of antidepressant drugs e.g MAOIs
          • Drugs increase level of neurotransmitters of the monoamine group such as dopamine and serotonin
            • MAOIs abolish REM completely
              • Two effects linked, increase in monoamines means that monoamine receptors don’t have to be revitalised so no need for REM
    • REM and memory
      • Unwanted memories are discarded - Important accessible
        • more complex r/s between memory and sleep
          • REM important in consolidation of procedural memories
            • SWS sleep is important for consolidation of semantic memories and episodic memories
    • Effects of total sleep deprivation
      • Individual case studies – lack of sleep doesn’t always result in long term damage, don’t need to recover amount of sleep lost
        • Deprived of sleep 22h had short periods of microsleep (while awake) EEG recordings show microsleep is same as sleep – Williams
    • Non-human animal studies
      • Sleep deprivation can have fatal consequences
        • – kept rats awake by rotating them on a disc when they tried to sleep, after 33 days all rats were dead. Possibly due to stress because study was repeated with pigeons with no ill effects
    • Effects of partial sleep deprivation
      • REM rebound, need for more sleep after a night of being deprived
        • Solely related to REM and SWS so the rebound effect only applies if the person is deprived of SWS or REM
          • To achieve REM sleep deprivation volunteers were awoken as soon as entered REM, REM on recovery nights increased by 50%
            • SWS uses acoustic simulation to rouse pps – Ferrara
    • Exercise and the need for sleep
      • marathon runners slept about an hr more on 2 nights after race, SWS increased
        • (SWS) NREM associated with physical recovery
          • General research – exercise makes you fall asleep faster but you don’t sleep longer
            • Horne and Minard – gave pps exhausting tasks and pps went to sleep faster but not longer
    • case studies
      • Deprivation research restricted to case or observational studies of small group
        • Peter Tripp stayed awake 201h and hallucinated unpleasant and abusive became paranoid showed continuous decline in body temp throughout, by end his waking brainwaves were indistinguishable from that of a sleeping person, but back to normal once he slept for 24h
          • Vietnamese man stopped sleeping entirely in 1973 with no ill effects


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