Restoration Theory of Sleep

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  • Created by: Grace
  • Created on: 11-01-13 17:05
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  • Restoration theories of Sleep
    • Oswald - sleep restores depleted resources of energy, removes waste from muscles and repairs cells.
      • This is done in stage 3 and 4 when growth hormone is released.
        • Rachtshaffen - studied rats who had several days of sleep deprivation which eventually killed them. Supports that they were not able to repair their body.
          • BUT they were put under stressful conditions to keep them awake so cannot be sure whether it was the stress or the sleep deprivation that killed them.
        • BUT other studies support Rachtshaffen - Shapiro - studied ultra marathon runners and found that they would sleep for 90 minutes longer than usual for the next 2 nights after a 57 mile run. Their REM sleep decreased and NREM sleep increased suggesting NREM is more important to restore the body.
          • BUT they were put under stressful conditions to keep them awake so cannot be sure whether it was the stress or the sleep deprivation that killed them.
      • BUT Ryback and Lewis found the amount of sleep does not decrease when levels of daytime activity decreases.
      • We have restorative functions during the day too so suggests sleep isn't needed.
    • Oswald and Hartman - built on this saying that REM sleep is for restoration of the brain. This happens during REM sleep
      • Explains why babies sleep is 9 hours REM compared to adults which is 2 hours REM - it allows growth and development of the brain
      • Following brain insults e.g damage from strokes/ drug overdose, patients spend more time in REM sleep - repairing and rebuilding tissue
      • Face validity - we do suffer from unpleasant consequences if we do not sleep e.g Tripp - did not sleep for 201 hours and became abusive with hallucinations
      • BUT brain is very active during REM sleep which suggests it's not an ideal time for restoration.
    • Reductionist saying that there is a universal purpose for sleep - different species are different. This theory suggests that active animals would sleep more but for example sloths sleep for 20 hours of the day - why? not necessary?
    • Restoration is reductionist as an explanation alone. It does not explain all! Like why we sleep if we are not very active all day - why is sleep necessary? Need to be looked at with evolutionary explanations to explain what restoration does not.

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