PSYA3 Restoration

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  • Restoration Explanations to sleep
    • A function of sleep is the restoration theory which is a biological function that takes place to restore the biological system to better working.
      • Sleep is divided into different stages, two of which is SWS which enables the body to repair and REM sleep which enables the body to recover.
    • A01
      • Growth hormones are secreted during SWS and GH stimulate growth which is important during childhood as it enables protein synthesis and cell growth.
        • GH are secreted during both day and night, Sassin found that when sleep-wake cycles are reversed by 12 hours, the release of GH are also reversed which suggests that GH are controlled by neural mechanisms.
      • REM is higher in babies than adults and even higher in premature babies which can be explained through their rapid brain growth.
        • It is suggested that the amount of REM is proportional to immaturity of offspring at birth.
          • For example, a platypus is immature at birth and has 8 hour sleep per night whereas a dolphin can swim from birth and has almost no REM sleep which shows a relationship between neural development and REM sleep.
    • A02
      • Tripp conducted research on sleep deprivation to show the effects it has. He stayed awake for 201 hours and within the first three days he became unpleasant + abusive. After 5 days he began to hallucinate and become paranoid. As the time went on his body temperature began to plummet.
        • However, after 24 horus of sleep he reported feeling fine. This suggests that lack of sleep doesn't result in long term damage so this supports the restoration theory as he was able to recover.
      • Randy Gardner stayed awake for 260 hours and felt fine after a lengthy sleep which further supports the restoration explanations.
      • There may be implications with the studies on sleep deprivation as they tend to be case studies so Ps are likely to be unique thus studies lack validity.
      • The restoration theory suggests that sleep vital for the body to repair and recover.
        • Shapiro found that runners in a marathon slept for about an hour more on the two nights following the race.
          • SWS increased in particular which fits the view that NREM sleep appears to be associated with physical recovery. However, in general, research has fond that exercise does little more than make you fall to sleep faster.
      • A lot of studies on non-human animals suggest that sleep deprivation may have fatal consequence. Rechtschaffen forced rats to remain physically active by rotating a disc, after 33 days of being sleep deprived that rats died.
        • However, it is possible that being stressed rather than sleep deprivation caused the rat's death.
          • This goes against the findings of Shapiro but supports the restoration theory as the rats weren't able to recover so they died.
      • Effects of partial sleep deprivation may lead to what is called "REM REBOUND" which is the need to sleep more after a night of deprived sleep. Researchers awoken sleeping volunteers, when their eyes began to move they showed an increased tendency to get into REM sleep when they went back to sleep.
        • On recovery nights, with REM rebound being as much as 50% higher than normal this suggests that REM sleep is important.


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