Situational Variables Affecting Obedience

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  • Situational Variables Affecting Obedience
    • Milgram study (1963)
      • 40 Ps who  played the teachers who tested the learners + gave them shocks when Ps answered wrong
      • The shocks started at 15V + went up by 15 until they got to 450V
      • At 300V the learner would bang on the wall + go silent
      • If the Ps wanted to stop they would be prompted
      • 65% of Ps went to 450V + all Ps went to 300V + only 12.5% stopping then
    • Evaluation
      • Gender: Milgram had one all female condition which showed the same obedience rates
      • External Validity: In Poland in 1942 Police Battalion 101 were told to kill Jews but only a minority were obedient
      • Realism: The experimenter remained calm who showed some Ps that no real pain was being inflicted
      • Historical Validity: Milgrams' study was done over 50 years ago but studies have not found any differences
      • Ethics: Deception, Consent, Withdrawal, Protection
    • Situational factors
      • Proximity: Teacher + Learner in same room = obedience at 40%
        • Teacher put Learners hand on shock plate = obedience at 30%
          • Experimenter gave instructions over the phone = obedience at 21%
      • Location: In a run down office = obedience at 48%
      • Uniform: Told PPL to give money to a man at a parking meter
        • Police uniform = 72% obedient
          • Business executive = 48% obedient
            • Beggar = 52% obedient

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