Separation Techniques

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  • Atoms - Lesson 3 -  Separation Techniques
    • DISTILLATION
      • SIMPLE DISTILLATION - separating a LIQUID from a SOLUTION
        • Solution is HEATED. EVAPORATION happens.
          • VAPOUR is COOLED, CONDENSES and is COLLECTED.
            • Rest of SOLUTION is left behind.
        • PROBLEM - Only use it with things that have VERY DIFFERENT boiling points
    • FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION
      • Used for - separating a MIXTURE OF LIQUIDS.
        • Put MIXTURE in flask and stick a FRACTIONATING COLUMN on top then heat.
          • DIFFERENT LIQUIDS = DIFFERENT BOILING POINTS - evaporate at DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES.
            • LOWEST BOILING POINT liquid evaporates first.
              • When first liquid has been collected you RAISE THE TEMPERATURE until the NEXT ONE reaches the top
    • Filtration
      • Filtration is a method for separating an insoluble solid from a liquid. When a mixture of sand and water is filtered:the sand stays behind in the filter paper (it becomes the residue)the water passes through the filter paper (it becomes the filtrate)
    • CRYSTALLISATION
      • 1. Pour in EVAPORATING DISH and HEAT. SOLVENT will evaporate and solution more CONCENTRATED.
        • Leave to COOL when crystals start to form.
          • FILTER the crystals out of the solution
      • BOTH can be used to separate ROCK SALT
        • Filtration
          • Filtration is a method for separating an insoluble solid from a liquid. When a mixture of sand and water is filtered:the sand stays behind in the filter paper (it becomes the residue)the water passes through the filter paper (it becomes the filtrate)
        • ROCK SALT - A MIXTURE of SALT and SAND.
        • GRIND mixture to make sure crystals are small and dissolve easily.
          • Put in water and stir. SALT DISSOLVES but SAND WON'T.
            • FILTER mixture. GRAINS OF SAND won't fit through tiny filter paper holes. SALT passes THROUGH.
              • EVAPORATE water from salt so it forms DRY CRYSTALS.

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