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  • Schmolck
    • Aim.
      • To investigate the damage to the medial temporal lobe (MTL)
        • Anterolateral Temporal cortex on semantic knowledge
      • Assess the relation between test performance and the extent of damage to lateral temporal cortex.
      • To determine whether HM’s performance was unique among the patients
      • Use of case studies of brain-damaged patients compared to ‘normal pp
    • Participants
      • three patients who developed amnesia after herpes simplex encephalitis
        • These patients have large medial temporal lobe lesions, as well as variable damage to anterolateral temporal cortex (MTL).
      • We also studied patient H.M., who underwent bilateral medial temporal lobe resection for relief of severe epilepsy
      • Other participants included two amnesic patients with damage believed to be limited to the hippocampal formation 
      • There was 8 controls within this study.
        • These controls were volunteers. They were matched to the older patients with respect to age (74.0 years) and education (12.4 years)
    • Tests
      • 9 tests were conducted over 3 to 5 different sessions with participants
        • . 7 of these tests were from the Semantic Test Battery and 2 tests were constructed by the researchers.
      • The tests were all based on line drawings of 24 animals and 24 objects. 
    • Procedure.
      • MRI scans of MTL patients, 1/2 HF patients
      • Seven of the 9 tests are from the Semantic Test Battery
      • All nine tests were based on the same line drawings of 24 animals and 24 objects (or their names)
      • Each of the 48 items could further be assigned to one of 8 categories
        • 6 domestic land animals, 6 foreign land animals, 6 water creatures, 6 birds, 6 electrical household items, 6 nonelectrical household items, 6 vehicles, and 6 musical instruments
      • There was no time limit
    • Results.
      • On 13 tests of semantic memory, patients with lesions limited to the hippocampal formation performed similarly to controls
      • Postencephalitic patients were mildly to moderately impaired on most tests
      • Patient H.M.’s performance was impaired on only a few tests and was less severely impaired overall than the three postencephalitic patients.
      • A ranking of test scores showed a direct relationship between impairment and the extent of damage to lateral temporal cortex


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