Schizophrenia Classification & Issues

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Schizophrenia Classification & Issues
    • Issues
      • Bias
        • Historical
          • Homosexuality mental disorder until 1973 in America.
        • Gender
          • Women more likely to be diagonised as psychiatricall ill, clinically depressed, and hysterical than men.
        • Culture
          • Misinterpretation of norm behaviours in another culture.
          • Nations use different systems which leads to poor inter-rater reliablity due to differences in the system.
          • Fernando: black people more likely to be diagnosed and given ECT.
        • Classification of illness associated with 'madness' leads to stigma and prejudice of individual.
      • Reliability
        • External
          • Diagnosis changes over time & Classification systems change.
            • Homosexuality mental disorder until 1973 in America.
        • Inter-rater
          • Lack of consistency between 2 systems & what they take into account.
            • DSM needs symptoms for 6 months. ICD needs them for 1 month.
            • DSM has 'optional' symptoms. DIsorder is not clear cut
          • Rosenhan Study proves there is inter-rater reliability, all doctors diagnosed the same.
        • Baca-Garcia: 69.6% PPV for sz. A lot lower than mood disorders.
        • POOR RELIABILITY AFFECTS VALIDITY
          • Validity
            • Professionals ability to diagnose.
              • Baca-Garcia: 69.9% PPV for sz.
              • Rosenhan Study:
                • Diagnosed pseudopatients.
                • pseudopatients showed sz symptoms so should have been diagnosed as they were.
            • Having 2 classification systems.
              • changes over time so incorrect.
              • Differences between systems so diagnosing different things.
              • 'Optional' symptoms of DSM so unsure what are proper characteristics.
            • Subtypes mean it is hard to explain what sz really is.
              • Bentall: suggests scrapping whole idea of sz as single disorder.
          • Allardyce et al: 1) delusions/ hallucinations can be normal 2) range of symptoms in different combinations. Overlap with different disorders.     3) are + and - symptoms part of same disorder.
      • Validity
        • Professionals ability to diagnose.
          • Baca-Garcia: 69.9% PPV for sz.
          • Rosenhan Study:
            • Diagnosed pseudopatients.
            • pseudopatients showed sz symptoms so should have been diagnosed as they were.
        • Having 2 classification systems.
          • changes over time so incorrect.
          • Differences between systems so diagnosing different things.
          • 'Optional' symptoms of DSM so unsure what are proper characteristics.
        • Subtypes mean it is hard to explain what sz really is.
          • Bentall: suggests scrapping whole idea of sz as single disorder.
  • Classification
    • Schizophrenia Classification & Issues
      • Issues
        • Bias
          • Historical
            • Gender
              • Women more likely to be diagonised as psychiatricall ill, clinically depressed, and hysterical than men.
            • Culture
              • Misinterpretation of norm behaviours in another culture.
              • Nations use different systems which leads to poor inter-rater reliablity due to differences in the system.
              • Fernando: black people more likely to be diagnosed and given ECT.
            • Classification of illness associated with 'madness' leads to stigma and prejudice of individual.
          • Reliability
            • External
              • Diagnosis changes over time & Classification systems change.
              • Inter-rater
                • Lack of consistency between 2 systems & what they take into account.
                  • DSM needs symptoms for 6 months. ICD needs them for 1 month.
                  • DSM has 'optional' symptoms. DIsorder is not clear cut
                • Rosenhan Study proves there is inter-rater reliability, all doctors diagnosed the same.
              • Baca-Garcia: 69.6% PPV for sz. A lot lower than mood disorders.
              • POOR RELIABILITY AFFECTS VALIDITY
                • Allardyce et al: 1) delusions/ hallucinations can be normal 2) range of symptoms in different combinations. Overlap with different disorders.     3) are + and - symptoms part of same disorder.
        • Acute onset: obvious signs appear suddenly. Triggered by stressful event. Fast deterioration.
        • Bleuler suggested the 4 A's: associaion, ambivalence, autism and affect.
      • Chronic onset: gradually looses drive/motivation. Drifts away from friends. SLow deterioration. More obvious signs of disturbance appear.
        • Classification
          • Acute onset: obvious signs appear suddenly. Triggered by stressful event. Fast deterioration.
          • Bleuler suggested the 4 A's: associaion, ambivalence, autism and affect.
      • Positive Symptoms: delusions, thought disorders, hallucinations and perceptions of control.
        • Negative Symptoms: flattening of affect, speech disorders, reduced/no motivation and catatonia.
          • General sz: thought disorders, distorted perception of reality, inappropriate emotions and responses, poor interpersonal skills.
            • 5 sub-types od sz: disorganised, paranoid, catatonic, undifferent, residual.
              • Disorganised thoughts, Incoherant speech, Silly behaviour (unpredictable), O, R, G, Affect flatterned, Normally diagnosed in adolescents, Ignores personal hygience, Sometimes violent, E, Delusions and hallunciations.
              • Paranoia delusions, Auditory hallucinations, R, Agitated, angry and violent, Normal personality, Organised speech, Incorporation of delusions and trivial ocurances, Delusions of grandeur.

          Comments

          No comments have yet been made

          Similar Psychology resources:

          See all Psychology resources »See all Schizophrenia resources »