Schizophrenia overview

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Schizophrenia Unit 4
    • Symptoms
      • Positive
        • Delusions
          • Grandeur
          • Persecution
        • Hallucinations (auditory/visual)
        • Experiences of external control
        • Disordered thinking
      • Negative
        • Affective flattening
          • Alogia - poverty of speech
            • Avolition - inability to persist in goal-directed behaviour
        • Lack of motivation/interest
    • Subtypes
      • Disorganised
        • Inappropriate emotions/behaviour
      • Paranoid
        • Delusions and mostly auditory hallucinations
      • Residual
        • Minor
      • Undifferentiated
      • Catatonic
        • Stupor/excitement
    • Biological
      • Genetics
        • Twin/family/adoption studies
        • Concordance
        • Diathesis stress model - genetic predisposition triggered by environment.
        • 'Schizophrenia spectrum disorders'
        • Cardno et al (1999) - 40% MZ but 5.3% DZ
        • Tosato et al - gene mapping - no singular gene
      • Dopamine Hypothesis
        • Snyder ... Davis
        • Abnormal D2 receptors
        • Developed after effects of L-dopa
        • Healy - pharmaceutical companies
        • Cause or effect?
          • L-dopa
        • Davis et al - relapse 55% placebo but 19% drug
        • Lloyd et al - if factor is indirect, caused by family circumstances
      • Neuroanatomy
        • Differences in size of ventricles.
        • Lambert and Kinsey - due to space left by smaller frontal and temporal lobes OR abnormal blood flow to parts of brain
        • Cause or effect? MRI usually AFTER symptoms
        • Many perspective studies use animals
    • Psychological
      • Psychodynamic
        • Pre-ego state
        • Harsh upbringing
        • Unable to distinguish between imagination and reality
        • Oltmanns et al - parents DO behave differently
          • BUT is this cause or effect?
        • Explanatory power - e.g. loss of reality
          • However, no other childlike behaviour?
        • Abstract
      • Cognitive
        • Hemsley (1993)
          • Schemas
            • Sensory overload
        • Frith (1992)
          • Meta-representation problems - positive symptoms
            • Central control problems - negative symptoms
              • Conscious vs preconscious processing
        • Bentall et al
          • Not universal
        • Doesn't explain why voices are abusive - British Journal of Psychiatry study
      • Socio-cultural
        • Labelling theory
          • Rosenhan
          • Child of its time? MacLeod
        • Expressed emotion
          • Cause or effect?
          • Hogarty et al (1991) - therapy reduced relapse rates
        • Double-Bind Theory
          • Berger (1965)
          • Liem (1974)
    • Treatments
      • Biological
        • ECT
          • Side effects
            • BUT death rate of 1 in 10,000
          • Sarita et al - no difference between real and fake ECT
        • Drug therapy
          • Less than 3% in hospital
          • Davis et al - relapse 19% vs 55% placebo
          • Side effects (e.g. 30% TD)
            • However, atypical less severe
          • Revolving door syndrome
      • Psychological
        • Psychoanalysis
          • Eysenck - control group 66% recovered - more than psychoanalysis
            • Bergin - patients in one of the control groups were in fact hospitalised
          • YAVIS effect
          • Smith et al (1980) - those receiving psychodynamic therapies scored higher for improvement
            • BUT 50% students - not representative
        • CBT
          • Kuipers - reduction in symptoms and lower drop-out rates when used with antipsychotics
            • BUT study didn't use control or blind trial
          • Older patients found to be less suitable than younger
        • Family Intervention
          • NICE (2009) - reduction in relapse compared to standard
          • NICE review - saves money as reduces hospitalisation
          • Pharoah et al - complying with treatment - biological

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Schizophrenia resources »