SALT Treaty I, 1972

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  • SALT 1 Treaty, 1972
    • 3 agreement topics
      • 1. ABM Treaty (anti-ballistic missiles)
        • reduced tension caused by the destabilising impact of defensive systems
        • one system was allowed for the capital city and one to protect their nuclear missiles
          • limited ABM systems to two sites
            • deterrence provided by the knowledge that the other side could strike back was maintained
      • The Interim Treaty
        • expired in 1977 (short-term treaty)
        • US and USSR could replace old missiles with new ones. The US had a technological advantage
        • limits placed on the number of ICBMs (Intercontinental ballistic missiles) and SLBMs (submarine-launched ballistic missiles) allowed
          • US: 1,054 ICBMs and 740 SLBMs
            • SU allowed more due to US having larger lead on strategic bombers
              • USSR: 1,618 ICBMS and 740 SLBMs
          • USSR: 1,618 ICBMS and 740 SLBMs
        • new technological developments were made - MIRVs (multiple independent re-entry vehicles)
          • these carried multiple warheads on a single missile
      • The Basic Principles Agreement
        • The Seabed Pact, 1971, banned plaing warheads on the seabed
        • basic important rules
        • Trade was encouraged between the US and USSR
          • US-USSR trade increased -- grain was sold to USSR during 1970s
        • its aim was to minimise the development of nuclear war
    • differing weapon systems in US and USSR made it DIFFICULT
    • Nixon's visit to China, Feb 1972, worried USSR
      • USSR anxious to make agreement with US - security needs
    • Each superpower had enough nuclear weapons to destroy each other with several times
    • it indicated a desire to want to avoid nuclear conflict
    • Nixon visited Moscow in 1972. Brezhnev visisted Washington in 1973.
      • "symbolic of the new accord between the superpowers"
    • USA knew that newer technology was the only way to win the arms race

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