russian civil war

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  • The Russian civil war
    • started by the treaty of Brest-lutov
      • lenin had promised peace so saw this as the only option
        • gave up 76% of coal and iron core and 26% of the population
      • the treaty was very unpopular
    • the strengths of the reds
      • geography
        • occupied only 1/5 of land
          • but was the most densely populated areas-(70 million)
            • 1920- army = 5 mill
          • this meant that they could conscript more men
            • brought in 1918- 1mill
        • occupied the most industrialised  areas
          • more access to factories to manufacture weapons - 28 million shells
      • Trotskys leadership
        • had ex-tsarist officers in the army- which meant the forces were more experienced
        • had tsarist officers paired up so would rebel
        • made use of the railway- travelled to the frontline alot = kept moral up
        • made dessertion punishable by death
    • the weakness of the whites
      • geography
        • were more seprated- occupyed areas such as serbia
        • had less access to factories and the railways
      • although they had the support of foregin powers ...
        • support was limited
          • after end of WW1 many didnt see the need to intervne
            • most troops left
        • had spilt aims
          • britain and churchill-(PM did not agree) were fighting an ideological war
            • 100 mill in supplies
          • USA wanted to protect suply dumps in cezc region
      • 200,000 troops in 1918
      • no centralised leader
    • The whites lost
      • kolchack
        • 150,000 men managed to push reds back 250miles but eventually retreated eastwards
      • Denkin
        • 150,000 men, had initail successs= close to moscow- counter attack 1920= defeat
      • Yudenich
        • 150,000-NW army came close to petrograd but capital chnaged 1918


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