Peace, Land, Bread.
Soilders, Peasants, Workers.
Peace=End to war (treaty 1918).
Land= Took land off autocrats and gave it to peasants.
Bread=Grain Requisition form peasants gave food to workers.
This meat all the demands of the Russian people and gain more support.
Treaty of Brest-litovsk
Signed in 1918
Russia lost land:
- 32% agriculture.
- 34% of its population.
- 54% of its industry.
had to pay redemption payment to Germany of $3,000 million.
- Knew civil war was approaching.
- Needed man to figh in civil war.
- Needed the resources for civil war.
Civil War (Strengths of the reds)
Strengths of the Reds:
- Geographical advantages
- Good organisation
- Many ex-tsarist officers
- Good leadership
Trotsky- military mind (organised the red guards, put in place stick rules, convinced people there they would win, made sure they were fed and armed)
Lenin- direction (April Theses, Treaty, War Communism, NEP)
Civil War (Weaknesses of the whites)
Weaknesses of the Whites:
- Poor recruitment
- Little co-ordination
- Poor communication
- Poor organisation
- They were a range of mutually antagonistic groups with little in common
Social and Economic Policies
War communism was replaced by NEP in 1921
They reduced the powers of the church as they saw them as a threat to the communist idea
Use of Terror
Cheka formed in 1922 to take car of looting but then turned into the secret police
There were mass arrests and executions mostly in white run areas
In 1919 8,000 people were shot
Assassination of Tsar Nicholas and his family
Many people purged by the OGPU within the party
This was used to help with the economy duren the civil war
- Private trade banned.
- Industries nationalised.
- Food Requisitioned.
- Went along with the long term Bolshevik aims.
- Currency failed and was replaced with bartering.
- Opportunity to rebuilt city after ww1.
- Rationing was introduced.
NEP (New Economic Policy)
Was introduced in 1921 and used to help the economy after the civil war.
- Increased food production.
- Help economy after civil war.
- Reduced opposition.
- Was a move away from communism.
- Taxation was borough in.
- Small scale business were returned.