transformation of Russian industry and economy

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  • Russian Economy and industry transformation
    • Stolypin's land reforms
      • The famine of 1891-92 prompted the government to recognise the stagnation of industry, Stolypin believed that the key to industrial success was utilising the peasants and blamed the outdated technology and lack of initiative as the root of the issue
      • Stolypin believed the peasants should own their own consolidated strip of land and tend to it without interference from the Mir, to create a class of prosperous and entrepreneurial peasants assisting the economy and supporting the Tsar
      • 1903- responsability of the Mir to collect the peasents taxes was abolished- not until after 1905 revolts
        • 1906- more crown land available for peasants to buy and migration to Siberia encouraged, peasants given right to leave commune, land can become personal property (collective ownership abolished)  peasant can consolidate land, Peasant Land Bank created to finance land ownership
        • 1907- redemption payments abolished
        • 1910- all communes which had not redistributed land are dissolved
      • claimed to need 20 years of peace to fully implament-  Incredibly mixed, others saw those who left the “Stolypin separators” as traitors to peasant tradition., grain production rose from 56 to 90 million tonnes in 1914, 1909- biggest cereal exporter, 3.5 million peasants moved to Siberia and helped develop its economy
        • but changes in land look a long time and not always successful, 1914- 10% of land had been privatised, 90% used strip system and were reluctant to give up the security in which the Mir provided, fewer than 1% became Kulaks
    • Industrial transformation
      • Mikhail Von Reutern
        • Alexander IIs minister of finance, treasury transformed, new tax arrangements, tax farming and indirect taxation abolished,state bank, foreign investment encouraged
      • Vyshnegradsky 1887-1902
        • tariffs raised, 30% value of product, balance the budget- negotiated foreign loans eg the French, increased indirect taxes
        • Grain exports increased by 18%  and by 1892 the budget was in surplus
        • Expense of the peasants, who paid the tax and had their crops relinquished by the state- "We shall not eat we shall export" Famine of 1891-92
      • Sergi Witte
        • intended to continue Vyshnegradsky's work, continue tariffs, taxation and forced exports, sought to state manage industrial growth, introduced a new rouble in gold standard in order to strengthen foreign confidence, capital was able to fund public works develop infrastructure
        • Railway trackage doubled, coal output went from 183 million to 671 million in 1900, foreign investment soared with France supplying a third of the capital, By 1914 it was the fifth largest economical power
        • State controlled 70% of railway, dubbed it the great spurt as from 1903-13 government received 25%+ of its income from industrial developments
        • Railways - continued to buy railways 66% state owned, allowing more exploitation of heavy industry, stimulus to development of iron and coal, by 1913 Russia had second largest railway in the world
        • Heavy Industry- Witte focused upon heavy industry, Russia was the fourth largest producer of coal pig iron and steel in 1914, second in world oil production and fourth for gold mining
        • Light industry- 40% of industrial output, between 1908-1913 industrial growth rate was 8.5%


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