Russia from Tsardom to communism1914-1924

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  • Created on: 09-06-13 11:17
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  • Russia from Tsardom to Communism 1914-1924
    • Why the rule of the Tsar collapsed in 1917
      • The government
        • Autocrat
        • supported  by
          • Aristocracy
          • church
          • army
          • Peasants
          • civil service
        • cencorship
        • The Okhrana
        • Nicholas 2nd
          • German Wife
          • 4 daughters
          • Son : Alexis haemophilia
      • Society
        • Poor communications
        • Behind industrially
        • Poor living conditions
        • low wages
        • food shortages
        • out dated farming methods
        • Most people couldn't read or write
        • Finns Estonians Poles and Latvians wanted independence
      • Opposition groups
        • Socialist revolutionaries
          • largest &most violent
          • supported by peasants
          • they wanted to abolish private owner ship of land
          • they killed 2 government officials and members of the Okhrana
        • Social democratic party
          • Karl Marx
          • communism
          • Bolsheviks
            • Wanted a revolution
            • Lenin
          • Mensheviks
            • Believed Russia was not ready for a revolution
        • Kadets
          • Paul Miliukov
          • civil servants
          • worked within the laws to bring about change through the Duma
      • Unpopularity of the romanovs
        • The Tsar was away from Petrograd for long periods of time
        • Alexandra was in charge
        • People thought Alexandra was a german spy
        • Rasputin
          • monk
          • seemed to be able to cure Alexis' haemophilia
          • Womanizer and alcoholic
          • huge influence on the Romanovs
          • killend in 1916
    • The impact of the first world war on Russia
      • Initial patriotism
        • Society was initially patriotic
        • 1914
      • Military defeats
        • increased unpopularity of the Tsar
        • Soldiers were poorly equipped
        • The Tsar took command of the army in 1915
      • Effects on the cities
        • overcrowding
        • low wages
        • high prices
        • food and fuel shortages
      • Transport dislocation
        • priority was given to war transport
        • engineers were at war so things weren't repaired
    • The abdication of the Tsar in March 1917
      • Workers took strike in Petrograd
      • The Tsar ordered the troops to stop the protests and instead they joined in
      • When the Tsar tried to return to Petrograd his train was stopped and army commanders persuaded him to abdicate
    • Why were the Bolsheviks able to seize power
      • Problems facing the provisional government
        • Sharing power with the soviets who only carried out orders if they wanted
        • inherited economic state
        • Peasants took over land owners estates the countryside was in chaos
        • opposition parties were thriving
        • the war
      • Failures of the Provisional government
        • Prime minister Prince Lvov was replaced by Kerensky
        • Lenin returned from Germany and announced his april theses
        • They waged an offence against Germany and Austria and ended up losing
        • armed forces deserted war
        • General Kornilov led a march on Petrograd but was stopped by the Bolsheviks ordered to do so by the Provisional government
      • The growth of the Bolshevik organisation
        • They attempted a revolution in July and failed weakening the Bolshevik image
        • largest Party in Petrograd Soviet
        • Trotsky became chairman of the military revolutionary committee in 1917
    • The October/ November revolution 1917
      • Bolshevik seizure of power
        • Lenin and Trotsky planned it
        • Night of the 6th November
          • Bolsheviks took control of bridges stations and banks in and around Petrograd
        • Night of the 7th of November
          • the Aurora fired shots towards the Winter palace and Red guards attacked the place and found very little opposition
        • Early on the 8th of Novemberr
          • Lenin announced the Bolsheviks were in charge
      • Reasons for Bolshevik success
        • unpopularity of the provisional government
        • Lenins organisation and campaigning their slogan was Peace Bread Land
        • good planning by Trotsky
    • Russian society under Lenin and the end of the first world war
      • Totalitarian rule
        • Dictatorship of the Proletariat
        • Didn't have the support of most Russians
        • Lenin became a dictator his secret police were the Cheka
        • Abolished private ownership of land
        • food shortages
        • Wanted to collectivise farming
      • The end of the first world war
        • Ceasefire in December 1917
        • Trotsky negotiated terms
        • The treaty of Brest Litovsk
          • Lost territory
          • Lost coal and iron resources
          • lost 1/3 of its population
          • Paid 300 million cold roubles
    • The causes and nature of the Civil war 1918-1921
      • opposition
        • Whites
        • Tsarists
        • Menshviks
        • Social  revolutionaries
        • Foreign powers
          • Japan
          • France
          • America
          • Britain
      • Bolshevik threats
        • The Czech Legion
          • former war prisoners seized the trans siberian railway
        • Admiral Kolchak
          • Set up a white government in Siberia and was marching on Moscow
        • General Denkin
          • Advancing his army from Southern Russia
        • General Yudenich
          • Advancing his armies from Northern Russia
        • Foreign powers
          • Supplied Whites with weapons then later landed troops
      • Bolshevik victory
        • late 1920
        • Bolshevik strengths
          • Organised
          • Good communication
          • Propaganda
          • Cheka kept control of Bolshevik controlled areas
        • Whites weaknesses
          • No agreed aim
          • Disliked each other
          • Spread thin
          • ruthless
      • The creation of the USSR
        • December 1922
        • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
        • Came into effect in 1924
        • Lenin created it
    • Economic problems - War communism and the New economic policy
      • War Communism
        • Land and industry were nationalised
        • Harsh discipline in factories
        • Food and coal were rationed
        • Peasants had to give surplus products to the government
      • The cost of the civil war and war communism
        • made workers poor and angry
        • famine in the country side
        • The Kronstadt mutiny
          • Sailors who were leading supporters of the Bolsheviks revolted against war communism in february 1921
      • The New Economic Policy
        • March 1921
        • Measures:
          • Peasants keep surplus to make a profit
          • Small factories had private ownership
          • Small businesses could be run to make a profit

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