Russia from Tsardom to communism 1914-1924

  • Created by: Ellie
  • Created on: 29-05-13 10:02
Who was the Tsar in 1914?
Nicolas the 2nd
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Who supported the Tsar?
aristocrats,the church, the army and civil service
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What was the name of the Tsars secret police?
The Okhrana
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Describe the Tsars family
Wife Alexandra who was a german princess. 4 daughters and a son Alexis who had Haemophilia
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Name two of the Tsars floors
He was weak and slow in making descisions
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What type of party did the Tsar rule?
an autocrat
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Name the problems Russian society faced in 1914
poor communications, Russia was far behind industrial powers, living conditions were deteriorating, poor wages, food shortages, most people couldn't read or write
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Describe the peasants in 1914
Poor, they lived in the countryside, used outdated farming methods, represented most of the population, most were loyal to the Tsar
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Describe the Socialist Revolutionaires
largest and most violent group, supported by peasants, they wanted to give estates to the peasants, they assassinated government officials and the Okhrana
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Describe the social democratic party
followed Karl Marx and communism, wanted revolution through the workers
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When did the Social democratic party split and what did they split into?
1903 and Bolsheviks and Mensheviks
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Describe the Bolsheviks
led by Lenin, they believed it was their job to make a revolution
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Describe the Mensheviks
They believed Russia was not ready for a revolution
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What happened if you were found to be a member of an opposing party?
they were illegal so you would be executed or exiled
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describe the Kadets
led by Paul Miliukov, made up of civil servants, worked with in the laws to bring change through the Duma
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What is the Duma?
a representative assembly allowed by the Tsar which had very little power
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What were Russian citizens original views on going to war?
they were patriotic as they wanted to defend their country against invading Germans and Austrians
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Name the military defeats that occurred
military defeats led to unpopularity of the Tsar, soldiers were poorly equipped
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When did the Tsar take command of the army and what were the consequences?
1915- he was not directly to blame for any defeats
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What effects did the war have on Russian cities?
overcrowding, low wages, rising prices, food and fuel shortages.
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What was special about Winter 1916-1917?
It was exceptionally cold and so all problems got worse and many people died
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What was wrong with the transport system during war time?
priority was given to war materials and food for the frontline, trucks weren't repaired as engineers were at war
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Why did the Romanovs unpopularity increase during the war?
Nicholas was to blame for defeats, Nicholas was away from Petrograd for long periods of time, People thought Alexandra was a German spy
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Who was Rasputin and how did he effect the Romanovs?
A monk who had a large influence on the Tsars decisions as he seemed to be able to cure Alexis' haemophilia
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Why was Rasputin frowned upon?
he had to big an influence on the Tsarina, has was a womaniser and an alcoholic
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When did Rasputin die?
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What happened in 1917 to lead the Tsar to abdicate?
Workers too strike in Petrograd the troops that were meant to stop the strikes joined in the Tsars train was stopped when he was trying to return to Petrograd army commanders persuaded him to abdicate
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Who took control of the government after the Tsars abdication and what did they set up?
the Duma set up the Provisional government
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What problems did the provisional government face?
sharing power with the Soviets who only carried out orders if they agreed, they inherited a poor economic situation, peasants took over estates, opposing parties were now free, the war
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Who was the original prime minister in the provisional government and who was he replaced by?
Prince Lvov was replace by Alexander Kerensky.
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What was the april theses?
it was the Bolsheviks plan to overthrow the provisional government that Lenin announced after his return from Germany
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How did the Provisional government try to increase popularity?
They waged an offence against Germany and Austria but they ended up losing
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What was a problem the provisional government were facing as the war continued?
Russian armed forces were deserting the war
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Who tried to over throw the provisional government in September1917 and how?
General Kornilov led a march on Petrograd which was stopped by the Bolsheviks (who were ordered to do so by the provisional government)
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Who was general Kornilov appealing to?
Middle and upper class citizens
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Describe the July days
In july 1917 the Bolsheviks attempted to take over the government and failed to do so, this weakened the image of the Bolshviks
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Who joined the Bolsheviks in 1917 and what did he become?
Trotsky became the chairman of the military revolutionary committee
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What happened on the night of the 6th of November?
Bolsheviks took control of bridges, railway stations, banks and power stations in and around Petrograd
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What happened on the night of the 7th of November?
Bolsheviks ordered a cruise ship (the Aurora) to fire shots towards the winter Palace where the Provisional government were based and Red guards attacked the palace with very little opposition
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What happened early on the 8th of November?
Lenin announced the Bolsheviks had taken over the government
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What were the reasons for Bolsheviks success in the overthrow of the Provisional government?
good use of propaganda, the unpopularity of the provisional government, Lenins organisation and campaigning, good planning from Trotsky
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What was the Bolshevik slogan
Peace, Bread and land
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What did Lenin call his party?
The council of peoples commissar
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What did Lenin want?
A dictatorship of the proletariat - Bolsheviks would govern Russia for the good of the citizens
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How much support did Bolsheviks have originally after the take over?
little support
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What was the constituent assembly and when did it meet?
an assembly of opposition groups that met in January 1918
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Why did Bolshevik red guards close down the constituent assembly in july 1918?
there were twice as many socialists as there were Bolsheviks and they had agreed on a new government system for Russis
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What did Lenin become and who were his secret police?
Dictator and the Cheka who inprisoned, intimidated and murdered political opponents
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What did Lenin do about the state in the country side?
He abolished private ownership of land which left the country side in chaos
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How did the Bolsheviks want to change farming and why was this a problem?
they wanted to reorganise it from industrial to collective farming but the Peasants didn't trust them
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When was a cease fire of the war agreed?
December 1917
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Who was in charge of negotiating terms?
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When did Russia sign the treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
March 1918
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What were the terms of the treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
Russia lost territory, coal and iron resources, 1/3 of its population and it had to pay 300 million gold roubles in compensation
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Who were the Bolsheviks opponents in the civil war?
The whites who were mad up of Tsarists, Mensheviks, Social revolutionaries and foreign powers
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What were the threats agains the Bolsheviks in the early stages of the civil war?
The Czech legion, Admiral, General Denkin, General Yudenich, Foreign powers
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What was the Czech legion?
former war prisoners seized sections of the Trans Siberian Railway
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What did Admiral Kolchak do?
he set up a white government in Siberia and was marching on Moscow
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What did General Denkin do?
He was advancing his armies from Southern Russia
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What did general Yudenich do?
he led Northern Russia to oppose the Bolsheviks
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What did the foreign powers do?
America, Japan, France and Britain supplied the whites with weapons
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Who won the civil war?
The Bolsheviks
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In 1919 what did Trotsky lead the red army to do?
defeat Kolchak and destroy the Czech legion and stop Denkins advances on Moscow
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When did the civil war end?
late 1920
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What were the strengths of the Bolsheviks?
ruthless, organised, good communication, good use of propaganda, Cheka kept control of Bolshevik areas
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What were the weaknesses of the Whites?
no agreed aim, often disliked each other, they were thinly spread across a huge area, couldn't coordinate attacks, harsh treatment of people boosted Bolshevik support
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When was the USSR created and by whom?
in December 1922 by Lenin but it only came into affect in 1924 after Lenins death
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What were the policies of War communism?
land and industry were nationalised, discipline in the factories, peasants had to give surplus product to the government,opposition were killed by the Cheka
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What does nationalised mean?
taken over by the state
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What were the consequences of war communism?
made workers poor and restless, lead to famine in the country side so Lenin came up with the New economic policy
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Describe the Kronstadt mutiny
Kronstadt sailors who were leading supporters of the Bolsheviks revolted against war communism in February 1921
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When was the New Economic Policy introduced?
March 1921
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What were the measures of the New Economic policy?
peasants would keep surplus to make a profit, small factories had private ownership, small private businesses could be set up
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Describe Lenins effects on Russia?
he led communist revolution, established the USSR, created a disciplined communist party using the Cheka, the USSR became a dictatorship
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Describe Trotskys effects on Russia?
he organised the Red guards, he planned and organised the Bolshevik takeover, he trained and led the army during the civil war
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Who supported the Tsar?


aristocrats,the church, the army and civil service

Card 3


What was the name of the Tsars secret police?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Describe the Tsars family


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Name two of the Tsars floors


Preview of the front of card 5
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Bella Woods


flaws not floors

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