Russia in 1855 (1)

  • Created by: MonsurAli
  • Created on: 01-06-17 14:07
View mindmap
  • Russia in 1855
    • Politically
      • Autocratic with a Tsar at the head. He was also the head of the Orthodox Church, and seen as God chosen.
      • Patriarch of Moscow & Over Procurator of the Holy Synod advised him
      • His edicts (Ukazy) were the law of the land.
      • The Imperial Council, Council of Ministers and the Senate (although hardly existed by 1855) were chosen by him.
      • There were 1-14 ranks: each having their own dress code etc.
    • Military and policing
      • Tsar had world's largest army: 1.5 million serfs (due to 25 years conscription)
      • Army and navy took 45% of govt expenditure.
      • It was a police state: Cossacks were Tsar's private guards and the 'Third Section' ensured surveillance over the population.
    • Economy
      • Europe (Britain, France etc) were more industrialised.
      • Russia remained mainly rural with 11:1 village to town dwellers
      • Serf-based economy: 90% were serfs. There was also starvation in the winters.
      • Most of the land inhospitable: potential of Russia was not uncovered.
      • Serfs belonged to Mirs and markets existed and were growing
      • Money was not used (barter economy), and landownders were forced to take out loans due to debts caused by inefficiency.
    • Socially
      • Extremely divided between land owning elite and serf majority.
      • Urban artisans (skilled workers) existed, but no middle class or intelligentsia
      • Serfs paid rent to masters and tax to the govt. However the nobility paid no direct taxes.
      • 55.6% of people were Russian, 22.4% Ukrainian, 7.9% Polish.
    • Crimean war (1853-56)
      • Russia fought British, French and Turkish in Crimean Peninsula.
      • There were a few early successes of destruction of Turkish fleet
      • Faced later defeats in Battle of Balaclava and Inkerman.
      • 1855: lost Sebastopol. Nicholas I died in the same year.
      • Enteric fever killed 500,000 of 980,000 people. There was poor sanitation and no nurses.
      • Highlighted Russian inefficiencies e.g. outdated technology and poor transport.
      • The 25 years of conscription and 45% govt expenditure were not working.
      • Resulted in peasant uprising and a middle class crying for reform.
      • Treaty of Paris signed in 186: it was humiliating and showed backwardness.


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Tsarist Russia 1855-64 resources »