Restoration theory

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  • Restoration theory - growth and repair hypothesis
    • Sleep is to restore bodily energy reserves, repair muscle and neurotransmitter conditions and replenish/aid psychological recovery
      • Oswald (1980)
        • NREM stages 1-4 are all needed for repair/restoration of the body
          • REM is essential for repair/restoration of the brain
      • Horne (1988)
        • 'Core sleep' = stage 4 and REM essential for repair/restoration of brain
          • 'Optional sleep' = stages 1,2,3 not needed at all for repair/restoration
            • Restoration of body happens when we are awake and relaxed
    • Functioning will be impaired when we are sleep deprived
      • Randy Gardner stayed awake for 264 hours, suffered hallucinations, lapses of concentration, disorganised speech, blurred vision and paranoia
        • Suggests a restoration function of sleep
          • Randy: poorly recorded case study
            • Low controlled and don't know what his life was like prior to exp
      • Coren
        • Found older dogs died after 13 days of sleep deprivation compared to puppies after 6 days
      • Rechtshaffen
        • Found rats die after 12-21 days
    • There will be a rebound effect following sleep deprivation
      • Dement (1960)
        • Pp's deprived of REM sleep seemed to have a need to catch up
          • Attempts to enter REM sleep doubled from an average of 12-26 times by the 7th night
            • When allowed to sleep normally, the pps spent much longer than normal in REM, suggesting restorative function of sleep
    • There will be increase in REM during brain growth, reorganisation and repair
      • Research into life span changes in sleep suggests that REM activity reduces as we get older
        • In newborns, there is up to 50% REM during one day's sleep in contrast to elderly people who may only have 10-20%
          • Arguably because brain growth is essential tin early years where as in later life there is less need to develop brain
            • Further supported by premature babies engaging in as much as 90% REM, again suggesting restorative function of sleep
    • Increase in NREM during times of illness or injury or increased exercise
      • Shapiro et al (1981)
        • 56 mile marathon runners slept considerably longer for 2 days following the race, with much more NREM and less REM
      • Home and Horley
        • Untitled
      • Adey
        • Found paralyzed people only had small reduction in NREM compared to non-paralyzed
          • However, restoration theory would suggest they need lot less
            • May be because they have nothing else to do but sleep?


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