Unit 3 Psychology: Sleep - Restoration theory/ Deprivation theory

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  • Restoration theory/ Deprivation theory
    • Studies
      • Oswald (1980)
        • NREM sleep restores the body.
        • REM sleep restores the brain's chemicals.
      • Adam (1980)
        • Digestion, removal of waste products, and protein synthesis occur during sleep.
      • Hartmann (1973)
        • REM sleep is a time for synthesising noradrenaline and dopamine.
      • Horne (1988)
        • Core sleep is SWS and REM.
        • Optional sleep is Stages 1-3.
        • Only core sleep is critical for restoring brain functions.
        • The body can be restored in a restful wakefulness.
      • Stern & Morgane (1874)
        • REM replenishes the brain's neurotransmitters.
    • Total deprivation
      • Total sleep deprivation is where the individual has a constant wakefulness.
      • Studies
        • Peter Tripp
          • Awake for 8 days.
          • Delusions and hallucinations.
        • Randy Gardner
          • Awake for 11 days.
          • Disorganised speech, blurred vision, paranoia.
        • Huber-Weidman (1976)
          • Meta-analysis.
            • Awake for 6 nights.
          • Common effects.
            • Distress.
            • Desire to sleep.
            • Micro-sleeps.
            • Delusions
            • Psychosis, which involved a sense of depersonalisation, loss of identity, dificulty coping with the environment.
        • Rechtschaffen (1983)
          • Rats placed onto a container. One was able to sleep and the other wasn't.
          • Sleep-deprived rats died within 33 days.
        • Lugaressi (1986)
          • Brain-damaged patient couldn't sleep and died.
        • Fatal familial insomnia.
          • When reaching middle age, the individual stops sleeping and dies within 2 years.
    • Partial deprivation
      • Partial sleep deprivation is where the individual experiences a reduction in sleep, or is deprived of one stage of sleep.
      • Studies
        • Dement (1960)
          • Participants were systematically deprived of REM and NREM sleep.
          • REM deprivation was more severe.
          • Attempts to enter REM sleep doubled by the seventh night.
          • REM rebound effect.
            • When allowed to sleep normally, the participants spent much longer than normal in REM sleep.
        • Jouvet (1967)
          • Cats were placed on a flowerpot in a tank of water.
          • Going into REM sleep made them fall off the flowerpot and into the water.
          • Without REM sleep, the cats died.
        • Webb & Bonnet (1978)
          • Participants who reduce their night's sleep by two hours feel fine.
          • Participants who gradually reduced their total amount of sleep over two months felt fine with 4 hours sleep per night.
    • We sleep more in times of illness.
      • Supports restoration theory.

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