Aerobic Respiration

The metabolic pathways of aerobic respiration 

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  • Respiration
    • Metabolic Processes
      • Anabolism
      • Catabolism
      • Active Transport
      • Secretion
      • DNA replication
      • Muscle Contraction
      • Activation of Chemicals e.g. Glucose is phosphorylated in glycolysis
    • ATP
      • Phosphorylated Nucleotide
      • Adenine
        • Ribose Sugar
          • Adenosine
            • Adenosine mono-, di-, triphosphate
      • Can be hydrolysed to ADP + Pi
        • Reversible Reaction
          • Small manageable amounts of energy that won't harm the cell
          • When work needs to be done inside a cell a Pi group can be broken off releasing energy
    • Coenzymes
      • NAD
        • Hydrogen Acceptor
          • Reduced NAD
            • Hydrogen is donated to the electron transport chain
            • Produced in...
              • Glycolysis
                • 2 molecules
              • The Link Reaction
                • 1 molecule per Pyruvate, 2 molecules per Glucose
              • Krebs Cycle
                • 3 molecules of NAD, 1 molecule of FAD per cycle, 6 molecules of NAD 2 molecule of FAD per Glucose
      • CoA
        • Carries acetyl molecules from the link reaction to the Krebs Cycle
          • Can also carry fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix where they are broken down into acetyl groups which can then enter the Krebs Cycle
    • The Metabolic Pathways of Respiration
      • Glycolysis
        • Glucose
          • 1,6 - Bisphosphate
            • Triose Phosphate
              • Pyruvate
        • 2 molecules of ATP
          • Substrate Level Phosphorylation
        • 2 molecules of reduced NAD
          • Dehdrogenase Enzymes
        • Takes place in cell cytoplasm
      • The Link Reaction
        • Pyruvate is converted into Acetate
          • Acetate combines with Co-enzyme A to form Acetyl Co-enzyme A complex
            • ACoA complex is transported to the Krebs Cycle
        • Decarboxylation
          • DecarboxylaseEnzymes
        • Occurs in Mitochondrial Matrix
        • Dehdrogenation
          • 1 molecule of reduced NAD per molecule of Pyruvate (2 per molecule of glucose)
          • Dehydrogenase Enzymes
        • No ATP is produced
          • Reduced NAD is produced
      • The Krebs Cycle
        • ACoA dissociates and Acetyl enters the Krebs Cycle
          • Acetate
            • Oxaloacetate(4C)
              • Citrate (6C)
                • 5C Compound
                  • 4C Compound
                    • 4C Compound
                      • 4C Compound
                        • Oxaloacetate(4C)
                          • Citrate (6C)
                            • 5C Compound
                              • 4C Compound
                                • 4C Compound
                                  • 4C Compound
                                  • ATP
                                    • Substrate Level Phosphorylation
                                • Decarboxylation
                                • Decarboxylated
                          • ATP
                            • Substrate Level Phosphorylation
                        • Decarboxylation
                        • Decarboxylated
              • Mitochondria
                • Inner and Outer Membrane
                  • Intermembrane Space
                • Inner Membrane is folded into Cristae
                  • Large Surface Area for ATP Synthase Enzymes
                  • Stalked Particles
                    • ATP Synthase
                • Matrix
                  • The Link Reaction & The Kreb's Cycle
              • Oxidative Phosphorylation
                • Requires Hydrogen ATOMS from the previous metabolic pathways of Respiration
                  • Hydrogen atoms split to form protons and electrons
                    • Electrons are transported down the electron transport chain
                      • Oxygen acts as the final electron acceptor
                        • Electrons combine with protons to form Water
                          • Protons are in solution in the matrix
                    • Protons go into solution in the matrix
                • Electron Transport Chain
                  • Electron Acceptor Proteins
                    • Movement of electrons provides energy for H+ ion to be pumped from the matrix into the intermembrane space
                      • Build up of protons in the intermembrane space
                        • Protons flow down ATP synthase enzymes
                          • Chemiosmosis
                          • Kinetic energy provides energy for the attachment of ADP and Pi to form ATP

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