Psychopathology 2 (pg 143- 149)

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  • Created on: 26-08-20 09:37
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  • Psychopathology 2 (pg 143-149)
    • Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (OCD)
      • Types of OCD
        • OCD
        • Trichotillomania ie. compulsive hair-pulling
        • Hoarding Disorder
        • Excoriation Disorder ie. complusive skin-picking
      • Characteristics
        • Behavioural characteristics
          • Compulsions are repetitive ie. hand-washing
          • Compulsions reduce anxiety ie. hand-washing in response to a phobia of germs
          • Avoidance of OCD triggers
        • Emotional characteristics
          • Anxiety and distress
          • Accompanying depression ie. often comes along with OCD
          • Guilt and disgust ie. directed towards self or external things like dirt
        • Cognitive characteristics
          • Obsessive thoughts
          • Cognitive coping strategies ie. a person tormented by obsessive guilt may respond by praying or meditating
          • Insight into excessive anxiety ie. some believe their obsessive thoughts are based on reality
    • The Behavioural Approach to EXPLAININGPhobias
      • The two-process model. Orval Hobart Mowrer (1960)
        • Step 1: Acquisition of phobias by Classical Conditioning
          • Learning to associate somthing of which we initially have no fear (neutral stimulus) with something that already triggers a fear response (UCS)
          • John Rayner (1920) = Little Albert study. Loved rat and then associated iwth clanging sound so feared rat eventually. as generalised to similar animals like a small white rabbit.
        • Step 2: Maintenance of phobias by Operant Conditioning
          • Responses acquired by CC tend to decline over time, however phobias are long-lasting.
            • OC occurs in this way when our behaviour is reinforced (rewarded) or punished. It tends to increase the frequency of the behaviour
              • This is true for both + and - reinforcement
                • - reinforcement = avoids an unpleasant situation = desirable consequence = repeated bhv
    • The Behavioural Approach to TREATING Phobias
      • Systematic Desensitisation
        • Gradually reduces phobic anxiety using classical conditioning = Counter-conditioning
        • 1. The anxiety hierarchy ie. a list of situations related to phobic stimulus, rated by the client from most discomforting to least. This list will be used to expose the client to the situations in order or hierarchy
          • 2. Relaxation ie. the client is taught to relax as deeply as possible by the therapist. Reciprocal inhibition is the fact that you can't be fearful and relaxed at the same time. Relaxation techniques might include breathing exercises or mental imagery. Drugs such as Valium can also be used
            • 3. Exposure ie. Client is exposed to phobic stimulus while in a relaxed state, across several sessions. starting at the bottom of the hierarchy. Client is cured when they can relax in situations high on the anxiety hierarchy
              • Takes a lot of time so is often unfinished by client who loses motivation or money
            • Most effective
      • Flooding
        • Exposure to phobic stimulus but without gradual build-up. There is no option of avoidance
          • Client either reluctantly relaxes through exhaustion caused by panic, or realises the phobic stimulus won't harm them and relaxes
            • Can worsen phobia and cause long-term trauma
          • Cost/ time-effective
            • Least effective
              • Can't help social phobias
        • Flooding is not unethical per se but clients need to give informed consent because the experience is often traumatic
          • Noninclusive ie. those with learning disabilities wouldn't understand


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