Psychopathology 1 (pg 136-142)

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  • Created on: 26-08-20 10:00
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  • Psychopathology 1 (pg 136-142)
    • Definitions of Abnormality
      • Statistical Infrequency
        • when someone's behaviours are rare, and this can be shown through statistics. When an individual has a less common characteristic ie. being more or less intelligent than most of the population
        • Unusual characteristics can be positive
      • Deviation from Social Norms
        • When a person behaves in a way that is different from society's expectations of behaviour. When someone is not coping with experiencing severe personal distress.
        • Human rights can be abused if people are labeled and classed as abnormal
      • Failure to Function Adequately
        • They no longer conform to interpersonal standards ie. maintaining eye contact. When they experience severe distress. When their behaviour becomes irrational and poses risk to themselves and others
        • Represents a threshold for help
        • Ftfa can be normal ie. period of bereavment
      • Deviation from Ideal Mental Health
        • Concerns behaviour that is different from the accepted standards of behaviour in a community or society
          • May cause discrimination
            • Complete imh is impossible
        • Jahoda (1958) suggested ideal mental health means: no symptoms of distress; rationality and of perception; self-actualisiation; good self-esteem and lack of guilt; independent of others; successful in work, love and leisure; copes well with stress
    • Phobias
      • Types of phobias
        • Specific phobia: of an object ie. body part, animal, or situation such as flying/ injections.
        • Social Anxiety (social phobia): Of a social situation ie. public speaking
        • Agoraphobia: Of being outside or in a public place
      • Characteristics
        • Behavioural characteristics
        • Emotional characteristics
        • Cognitive characteristics
          • Selective attention to the phobic stimulus ie. Struggling to look away
          • Irrational beliefs ie. beliefs not easily explained or grounded in reality abut the phobic stimulus
          • Cognitive distortions ie. perceptions of the phobic stimulus may be unrealistic and inaccurate
    • Depression
      • Types of Depression
        • Major depressive disorder
        • Persistent depressive disorder
        • Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder
        • Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
      • Characteristics
        • Behavioural characteristics
          • Reduced activity and energy levels
            • Agitation can also occur = hyperactivity
          • Disruption to sleeping and eating behaviour
          • Aggression and self-harm
        • Emotional characteristics
          • Lowered mood ie. low levels of serotonin
          • Anger ie. can lead to risky behaviour such as self-harm
          • Lowered self-esteem ie. some can loathe themselves in extreme cases
        • Cognitive characteristics
          • Poor concentration ie. decision-making is often found harder
          • Attending to and dwelling on the negative
          • Absolutist thinking ie. black and white


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