Psychology: Attachment (with links to case studies)

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  • Psychology: Attachment
    • Animal attachment
      • Harlow's monkeys
      • Lorenz's geese
    • Types of attachment
      • insecure resistant
        • Little or no stranger/ separation anxiety. Can be comforted by a stranger.
      • Secure
        • High stranger and separation anxiety, easily comforted
      • Insecure avoidant
        • High separation / stranger anxiety. Often uneasy around PCG and cant be comforted by PCG or stranger
      • The strange situation
      • Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg
        • The strange situation
    • Attachment
      • Infant / caregiver interactions
        • Interactional synchrony
          • Mother and infant repeat each other's actions and emotions in a synchronised way
        • Reciprocity
          • Both respond to each others signals and get a response from the other
      • Stages of attachment
        • 3: Discriminate; infant can form a strong attachment to an individual (primary CG) (7-11 months)
        • 1: pre-attachment; the baby can tell the difference between people and objects but has no preference (0-3 months)
        • 4: multiple attachment; infant can form attachment to many people, some stronger than others and for different purposes (9 months)
        • 2: Indiscriminate; the infant can recognise and distinguish people, but has no preference (6 weeks-7 months)
    • Disruption of attachment
      • Maternal deprivation
        • The emotional and intellectual effects of log-term separation from the PCG during the critical period
      • Bowlby's 44 thieves
      • Deprivation: where an attachment was formed but is now broken
      • Privation: when an attachment was never formed
    • Effects of institutions
      • Romanian Orphans (ERA)
      • Learning difficulties and development issues e.g. mental retardation or speech difficulties
      • Example Czech Twins
      • Exapmle Genie
    • Explanations of attachment
      • Bowlby
        • Critical period: the time in which an attachment will form (if at all)
        • Monotropy: We form one main attachment, from which we can develop more
        • Internal working model: the template we have for all future attachments, can change and develop depending on how a persons relationships change
      • Learning theory
        • C.conditioning getting food gives the baby pleasure, and the baby learns to associate it's mother with food, so is happy when it sees it's mother
        • O.conditioning babies feel discomfort when hungry, and want food to remove the discomfort. They will cry and their mum will feed them, removing the discomfort (negative reinforcement)
        • Evaluation
          • supporting research.
          • Reductionist. Animal studies (difficult to generalise)

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