What is attachment?
Attachment is a close emotional bond, leading to a relationship, between an infant and a caregiver.
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What does attachment lead to?
Attachment leads to clingy behaviour, proximity-seeking, and distress when separated from caregiver
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What is reciprocity?
Reciprocity is when the infant responds to the action of someone's with a similar action.
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What is interactional synchrony?
The infant reacts in time with the caregiver's speech by mirroring their facial and body movements.
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What is imitation?
The infant copies the caregiver's actions.
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What evidence is there for imitation?
Meltzoff and Moore found infants as young as 2/3 weeks old imitated specific facial and hand gestures.
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Evidence to support Meltzoff and Moore
Murray and Trevarthen found that infants experienced acute distress when the mother on the video tape did not respond to facial and body gestures, showing that infants are actively eliciting a response.
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Evidence against Meltzoff and Moore
Jean Piaget suggested any imitation before the age of 1 was response training, as a result of operant conditioning by gaining a reward of a smile.
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Evaluation of Meltzoff and Moore
They increased internal validity by asking an independent observer to judge the infant's behaviour from the video, which allowed for infant responses to be measured objectively.
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Evaluation of Murray and Trevarthen
Marian et al found that their replication of study suggested infants could not distinguish between video taped interactions and live ones. So infants aren't responding to the adult.
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Evaluation of Marian et al
They indicate that the problem may lie with the procedure, and not the ability of infants to imitate their caregivers.
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Individual differences
Isabella et al found that more strongly attached infant-caregiver pairs showed greater interactional synchrony.
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What did Heimann found?
Heimann found that infants who imitated a lot from birth developed a better quality of relationship at 3 months. It isn't clear whether imitation is the cause or the effect of this early synchrony.
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Who developed the 4 stages of attachment?
Schaffer and Emerson
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What is the first stage of attachment?
Asocial attachment is when the infant can separate people from objects but doesn't have any strong preferences about their caregiver.
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When is the asocial attachment phase?
0-3 months.
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What is the second stage of attachment?
Indiscriminate attachment is when the infant can distinguish between inanimate objects and human company, smiling more at humans. They still have no preference.
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When does indiscriminate attachment occur?
Between 6 weeks and 7 months.
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What is the third stage of attachment?
Discriminate attachment is when the infant forms a strong attachment with a specific caregiver.
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What is a primary attachment figure?
A primary attachment figure is the person who has formed the closest bond with a child.
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When does discriminate attachment occur?
From 7 months to 11 months.
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What happens within the discriminate phase?
Infants are likely to experience separation anxiety when their primary caregiver puts them down. But also, they are likely to form stranger anxiety when they are picked up or approached by someone who is unfamiliar.
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What percentage of children did Schaffer and Emerson find to have their mother as the first specific attachment?
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What percentage was the mother the first joint object of attachment?
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What percentage was the father the first object of attachment to the child?
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What percentage was the father the first joint object of attachment?
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What is the last stage of attachment?
Multiple attachments is when the infant forms many different attachments based upon the consistent relationships they have.
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When does multiple attachment occur?
From 9 months onwards.
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What were Schaffer and Emerson's findings on multiple attachments?
Within one month of having a main attachment, 29% had multiple attachments to someone else, the secondary attachment. Within 6 months, this rose to 78%.
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Evaluation of Schaffer and Emerson
The data collected may be unreliable as it relied on the mothers' reports of their infants. Some mothers may be less sensitive to their infants' protests and so reported less. This would create a systematic bias, challenging the validity of the data.
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Evaluation of Schaffer and Emerson's sample
The sample is biased, as it is from a w/c population, and from the 1960s. Parental care has changed considerably since then so it may be less temporally valid.
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Evaluation of Schaffer and Emerson: Individualist culture
S and E's study is culturally biased, as it only applies to individualist cultures. Sagi et al found that children formed closeness of attachment with mothers twice as common when in family-based arrangements than the communal environment of kibbutz.
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Evaluation of stage theories of attachment
Stage theories suggest development is inflexible, however multiple attachments may occur before a single attachment in some situations and cultures. This may lead to a child's development being classed as abnormal.
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Role of the Father: Goodsell and Meldrum
Goodsell and Meldrum found that infants with a secure attachment to their mother were also more likely to have a secure attachment to their father.
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Role of the Father: Ross et al
Ross et al found that the number of nappies a father changed was positively correlated to the strength of the infant's attachment.
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Role of the Father: Caldera
When investigating 60 fathers and mothers alingside their 14-month old infants, it was found that fathers who were involved in care-giving activities were much more likely to develop a strong attachment with their child.
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Role of the Father: Geiger (1996)
Geiger suggested a mother's relationship is primarily nurturing and caring, but a father's relationship is more focused around play.
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What did Lorenz study?
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How many groups did Lorenz divide the eggs into?
2 groups, one staying with their mother and the other being incubated by Lorenz.
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What did the incubated eggs first see when hatched?
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What did the incubated goslings do when they saw Lorenz?
They started following Lorenz around, as they imprinted on him.
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What is imprinting?
An innate readiness to develop a strong bond with the mother.
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What were the findings of Lorenz's study?
When the goslings were altogether, they divided themselves up into the original two groups. Lorenz also noted that imprinting occured within a critical period of 13-16 hours after hatching.
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What long-lasting effects did Lorenz discover?
He discovered that imprinting was irreversible and long-lasting, but imprinting also had an effect on later mate preferences. Birds will choose to mate with the same kind of object they imprinted on.
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Research Support for Lorenz's study
Guiton found that when leghorn chicks were exposed to yellow rubber gloves for feeding them the first few weeks, they imprinted on the gloves, suggesting a critical period. Male chickens also tried to mate with the gloves.
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Criticisms of imprinting
Guiton found that he could reverse imprinting in chickens after spending time with their own species, engaging in normal sexual behaviour. Learning can also occur rapidly, so imprinting is fairly irreversible.
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Evaluation of Lorenz's study
Lorenz used precocial species, which have their eyes open and are able to walk from birth, so they are very different from human babies. This means that the study cannot be generalised easily to human babies.
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What animals did Harlow use?
Rhesus monkeys
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What is the procedure of Harlow's study?
8 monkeys were split into two groups, one where the cloth-covered mother had the milk, and one when the wire surrogate mother had the milk. Both surrogate mothers had different heads.
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How many days were the monkeys studied?
165 days
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What observations were noted?
When the monkeys were scared by a mechanical teddy bear, and the amount of time spent with each mother.
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What were the findings of Harlow's study?
All 8 spent the most time with the cloth-covered mother. Those who fed from the wire mother spent little time, and when scared, all monkeys clung to the cloth-covered mother. When playing, they also kept a foot on the cloth-covered mother for safety.
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What were the long-lasting effects of Harlow's study?
Harlow found the motherless monkeys developed abnormally, both socially and sexually. They seemed to recover before 3 months old if they spent time with their peers.
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What type of experiment was Harlow's study?
Lab experiment
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Evaluation of Harlow: Lab experiment
As variables were strictly controlled, the results are unlikely to be affected by any extraneous variables, and therefore should be internally valid.
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Evaluation of Harlow: Generalisability
Harlow's study is supported by Schaffer and Emerson's findings as infants are not most attached to the person who fed them, so this study can be generalised to humans, even though human behaviour is governed by more conscious decisions.
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Evaluation of Harlow: Confounding variable
The two surrogate mothers varied in more ways than one as their heads were different. This acts as a confounding variable as it varies systematically with the IV. Therefore, the study lacks internal validity.
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Evaluation of Harlow: Ecological validity
As the monkeys were not in their natural environment, the study cannot be reliably applied to real life.
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Evaluation of Harlow: Ethical issues +
As Harlow's study could not be conducted ethically on humans, it allows us an understanding on the processes of attachment which can lead to better care for human infants. Therefore the benefits outweigh the costs to the animals in the study.
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Evaluation of Harlow: Ethical issues -
Harlow's study created lasting emotional harm as rhesus monkeys are social animals, and they had difficulty forming relationships. This could be considered bad science.
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Evaluation of Harlow: Replication
As the ethical guidelines today are against Harlow's procedures, this study cannot be replicated and proven to be reliable. Therefore, it can be considered unscientific.
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What does Learning theory suggest?
Learning theory suggests that behaviour is learnt, rather than being innate tendencies.
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What does Learning theory consist of?
Classical conditioning, Operant conditioning and Social Learning Theory.
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What is classical conditioning?
Classical conditioning is learning through association.
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What is the classical conditioning equation?
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What is the unconditioned stimulus?
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What is the unconditioned response?
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What is the neutral stimulus?
The Mother
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What is paired together during conditioning?
The neutral stimulus of the mother and the unconditioned stimulus of food.
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After conditioning, what doesthe neutral stimulus turn into?
The Neutral stimulus of the mother becomes the conditioned stimulus.
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What is the conditioned response?
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What do learning theorists call this stimulus-response?
'Mother love'
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What is operant conditioning?
Operant conditioning is learning through reinforcement.
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What is drive reduction theory?
A drive is something that motivates behaviour, and so when in discomfort, the human/animal has a drive to reduce it.
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What is positive reinforcement?
A behaviour that is rewarded, so is more likely to be repeated.
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What is the positive reinforcement involved in attachment?
When the infant is fed, the baby feels pleasure.
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What is a primary reinforcer?
A primary reinforcer supplies the reward. In this case, the food.
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What is a secondary reinforcer?
The person who supplies the food is associated with avoiding discomfort, and a source of reward.
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How does attachment occur?
The child seeks the person who supplies the reward.
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What is social learning theory?
Social learning theory is where learning occurs through observing others and imitating behaviours that are rewarded.
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Who suggested that modelling could explain attachment behaviours?
Dale Hay and Jo Vespo
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What did Dale Hay and Jo Vespo propose?
They proposed that children observed their parents' affectionate behaviour and imitated this. Parents also instruct their children on how to behave in relationships and reward appropriate behaviours such as giving kisses and hugs.
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Evaluation of learning theory: Scientific Research+
Skinner's research, Harlow's, Lorenz's and Schaffer and Emerson.
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Evaluation of learning theory: Scientific Research-
Many are based off animal studies and not all human behaviour, especially complex behaviour such as attachment, can be generalised, so they lack validity.
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Evaluation of learning theory: Validity-
Research may lack validity as it is overly reductionist, just using a stimulus-response process to explain behaviour.
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Evaluation of learning theory: Food-
Food is supposedly a key element in forming attachment, however studies (Harlow's) show that contact comfort caused higher levels of attachment than food. This was also supported by Schaffer and Emerson.
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Evaluation of learning theory: Explanatory power
Learning theory does have some value as infants do learn through association and reinforcement. It just may be the attention and responsiveness as rewards that assist attachment forming.
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Evaluation of drive reduction theory: Ignored today-
Drive reduction theory is no longer used today, as it can only explain a few behaviours and it does not explain how secondary reinforcers work.
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Evaluation of learning theory: Alternative-
Learning theory is primarily rejected as Bowlby's theory has many more advantages. Bowlby explains why attachment occurs, due to evolution to enhance survival. It includes protection from harm. It explains facts better.
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Why do attachments form, according to Bowlby?
Attachment behaviour evolves as it serves as an important survival function. Parents who look after their offspring are likely to produce subsequent generations.
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Do babies have a critical period?
Babies have an innate drive to become attached, at around 3 to 6 months.
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What is attachment determined by?
Attachment is determined by sensitivity. This view was influenced by Ainsworth's research. When their mothers were most responsive, the infants were most strongly attached.
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How does attachment develop?
Social releasers are innate mechanisms that elicits caregiving, and leads to attachment.
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What is monotropy?
Monotropy is the idea that infants have one special emotional bond with the primary caregiver.
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What is the function of secondary attachments?
Secondary attachments provide an important emotional safety net and allow for healthy psychological and social development.
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What is the internal working model?
The internal working model is a representation of the primary caregiver's relationship with the infant.
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What does the internal working model act as?
It acts as a template for all future relationships as it generates expectations about what initimate, loving relationships are like.
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What is the continuity hypothesis?
Individuals who are strongly attached in infancy continue to be socially and emotionally competent whereas infants who are not strongly attached have more social and emotional difficulties in childhood and adulthood.
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Evaluation of Bowlby's theory: Research Support+
Harlow's study supports the idea that we evolved a need to attach, as it can be seen when the monkeys encountered an item they feared, they would cling on to the cloth-covered surrogate mother.
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Evaluation of Bowlby's theory: Research against monotropy
Schaffer and Emerson's study suggests many children form multiple attachments and may not attach to their mother.
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Evaluation of Bowlby's theory: Research for monotropy
Secondary attachments in his theory do contribute to social development but healthy development requires one central person higher than all others in a hierarchy.
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Evaluation of Bowlby's theory: Research for monotropy
Grossman and Grossman, Prior and Glaser both find that there is a key role for the fathers as secondary attachment and there is evidence of a hierarchal model.
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Evaluation of Bowlby's theory: Research against monotropy
Harlow's study of monkeys in isolation goes against monotropy, as it can be seen that monkeys who grew with their peers and not their mother did not show signs of social and emotional disturbance in later life.
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Evaluation of Bowlby's theory: Adaptation+
It can be seen that attachment is adaptive, as the age of attachment is linked to features of a species' life. Therefore, as infants start to crawl, they develop attachment later in life.
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Evaluation of Bowlby's theory: Sensitive period-
It is noted that developments can take place outside the critical period, so researchers prefer to use the term sensitive period to reflect the developmental window is one where children are maximally receptive to the formation of certain behaviours.
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Evaluation of Bowlby's theory: Continuity hypothesis+
Sroufe et al study on Minnesota parent-child relationships found that there was continuity between early attachment and later emotional/social behaviour.
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Evaluation of Bowlby's theory: Real Life Application+
Due to the research findings, many mothers began to stay at home in the 50s. It led to an influence in social behaviour and policies to protect chidlren.
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Evaluation of Bowlby's theory: Alternative-
Kagan proposes the temperament hypothesis that an infant's innate emotional personality may explain attachment behaviour. Those with an easy temperament are more likely to become strongly attached because it is easier to interact with them.
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Who studied the Strange Situation?
Mary Ainsworth
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What was the aim of the Strange Situation?
To see how infants behave under conditions of mild stress and novelty.
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How many episodes were there in the Strange Situation?
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How was data collected?
A group of observers watched using a video recorder or a one-sided mirror.
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How often was the infant's interactions recorded?
Every 15 seconds.
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How many behavioural categories were there?
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What was the scale of intensity?
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How many infants were observed?
106 middle class infants.
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What were the findings?
3 behavioural patterns; secure attachment, insecure-avoidant and insecure-resistant.
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What is secure attachment also known as?
Type B
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What are the characteristics of secure attachment?
Very willing to explore, moderate stranger anxiety, can be soothed after separation and enthusiastic when reunited.
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What percentage of children had secure attachment?
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What is insecure-avoidant attachment also known as?
Type A, or anxious-avoidant
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What are the characteristics of insecure-avoidant attachment?
Very willing to explore, low stranger anxiety, indifference when separated and avoids contact when reunited.
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What percentage of children had insecure-avoidant attachment?
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What is insecure-resistant attachment also known as?
Type C, or anxious-resistant.
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What are the characteristics of insecure-resistant attachment?
Not willing to explore, have high stranger anxiety, distressed when separated and seeks and rejects the mother on reunion.
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What percentage of children had insecure-resistant attachment?
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Evaluation of Strange Situation: Other types of attachment-
Ainsworth overlooked Type D attachment that was picked up on by Main and Solomon when analysing 200 videotapes. Type D attachment is insecure-disorganised, which has a lack of consistent patterns of behaviour.
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Evaluation of Strange Situation: Type D attachment+
Van IJzendoorn et al found 15% of children from a meta-analysis of 80 studies in the US had Type D attachment.
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Evaluation of Strange Situation: Inter-rater reliability+
Ainsworth et al found .94 agreement between raters when rating exploratory behaviour, suggesting the observations are reliable.
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Evaluation of Strange Situation: Application+
The research has improved children's lives as can be seen by the Circle of Security Project's findings of infants becoming more securely attached (32% to 40%), and caregivers becoming less disordered (60% to 15%).
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Evaluation of Strange Situation: Internal Validity-
Main and Weston found children behaved differently depending on which parent they were with. The classification of attachment type may not be valid, as it is measuring one relationship rather a child's personal characteristic.
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Evaluation of Strange Situation: Internal Validity+
Main tested a group of children and re-assessed them at 9 using the adult attachment interview, finding the attachment type influenced by the mother, supporting monotropy and the internal validity of the Strange Situation.
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Evaluation of Strange Situation: Ecological Validity-
As it was conducted in a lab setting, the study is artifical, reducing the ecological validity.
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Evaluation of Strange Situation: Hawthorne effect-
As the parents knew they were being observed, they may have changed their behaviour which could have affected the child's behaviour, so the results may not be valid.
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Who conducted a meta-analysis of the Strange Situation studies?
Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg
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How many studies did they examine?
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How many countries did the studies come from?
8- Germany, US, China, UK, Japan, Israel, Sweden and Netherlands
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What were their aims?
To find any inter and intra-culture differences in the findings.
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What were their findings?
Secure attachment is most common, then insecure-avoidant, apart from Japan and Israel.
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How many times greater were the variations within cultures compared to between cultures?
1.5 times greater.
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What do these findings support?
Secure attachment is 'best' for healthy, social and emotional development.
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Do they support the view that attachment is innate?
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Who supports Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg's findings?
Tronick et al.
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What were Tronick's findings?
When studying the African tribe, Efe, in Zaire, even with differences in childrearing practices, the infants showed a primary attachment.
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What did Grossmann and Grossmann find?
German infants tended to be classified as insecurely attached.
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Why are German infants classified more as insecurely attached?
German culture involves keeping some interpersonal distance between parents and children, so infants do not engage in proximity-seeking behaviour.
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What did Takahashi find?
When studying 60 m/c Japanese infants and mothers, there were similar rates of secure attachment, but no evidence of insecure-avoidant attachment. There were also high rates of insecure-resistant attachment. (32%).
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Why were there high rates of insecure-resistant attachment typed children in Japan?
Japanese infants rarely experience separation from their mother, making them appear insecurely attached.
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What conclusions can be drawn?
Differences in the patterns of attachment can be related to differences in cultural attitudes and practices.
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Evaluation of Cultural similarities: Innate-
Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg suggest cultural similarities can actually be explained through the effects of mass media, as it spreads ideas about parenting and so the world are exposed to similar influences.
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Evaluation of the Meta-Analysis: Nation-
Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg were comparing countries, rather than cultures. However in 2001, Ijzendoorn and Saki studied two pop. samples in Tokyo, and found that the rural sample found an over-representation of insecure-resistant individuals.
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Evaluation of Cross-cultural Research: Imposed etic-
The result of using an imposed etic to measure attachment is that Japanese children may appear to be insecurely attached according to Western criteria, so research using the Strange Situation may lack validity.
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Evaluation of Cross-cultural Research: Culture bias-
Rothbaum et al suggested that as the theory is so rooted in American culture, it is not relevant to other cultures. For example, the continuity hypothesis suggests being independent is being securely attached, but in Japan the opposite is true.
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Evaluation of theories of attachment: Benefit+
Rothbaum et al suggest the benefit of research on cultural variations is that psychologists can then produce indigneous theories that relate to individual cultures and child-rearing practices.
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What is deprivation?
To have a prolonged separation/loss of emotional care from the primary caregiver.
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What did Bowlby propose in regards to maternal deprivation?
Prolonged emotional deprivation would have long-term consequences in terms of emotional development.
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What did Bowlby believe?
Bowlby believed infants and children needed a warm, intimate and continuous relationship with the mother to ensure normal mental health.
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What was Bowlby's belief in the critical period?
If the child was deprived before 2 and a half years old, and there was no subsitute mother, then the child may become emotionally disturbed.
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How long was the critical period, according to Bowlby?
There is a continuing risk up until the age of 5 that could cause potential long-term harm, if the child is deprived.
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What are the long term consequences of deprivation?
Emotional maladjustment, mental health problems, social development problems, intellectual development problems and physical development problems.
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How many thieves did Bowlby study?
44 thieves.
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How many individuals were in the control group?
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What type of data did Bowlby study?
Bowlby analysed case studies.
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How many of the thieves were 'affectionless psychopaths'?
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What does 'affectionless psychopath' mean?
They did not hold responsibility for their crimes, they lacked affection and shame.
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What were Bowlby's findings?
12 of the affectionless psychopaths had frequent separations from their mother before the age 2. 17% of the other thieves also experienced frequent separations, compared to 4% of the control participants.
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What do these findings suggest?
Early separations can be linked to affectionless psychopathy, so lack of continuous care leads to emotional maladjustment.
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Evaluation of Maternal Deprivation: Emotional Separation+
Deprivation may also be caused by psychological separation, as noted by Marian Radke-Yarrow et al who studied depressed mothers and their children. They found 55% of their children were insecurely attached.
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Evaluation of Maternal Deprivation: Long-term effects+
Bifulco et al found that 25% of women who experienced separation from the mother experienced depression or anxiety disorders. Mental health problems were much greater in women whose loss occurred before the age of 6, supporting the critical period.
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Evaluation of Maternal Deprivation: Application+
Bowlby's study and theory led to major social change within hospitals. Robertson filmed a 2 year old girl overly distressed and begging to go home whilst in hospital for 8 days as she was separated. Now parents are able to stay with their children.
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Evaluation of Maternal Deprivation: Individual differences-
Barrett reviewed various studies on separation and found that securely attached children may cope reasonably well, whereas insecurely attached children become distressed. Therefore, not all children will be affected equally.
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Evaluation of Maternal Deprivation: Privation-
Rutter criticises Bowlby's view of deprivation as it is unclear whether the child's attachment bond was broken, or had never been formed. Rutter's view of privation would suggest far more serious consequences than just a loss of the attachment bond.
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Evaluation of Maternal Deprivation: Irreversible consequences-
Further research (Koluchova) suggests consequences are reversible, as twin Czech boys were found at 7 with rickets, and little social and intellectual development yet by adulthood had above average intelligence and normal social relationships.
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Who studied the Romanian orphans?
Rutter and Sonuga-Barke
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How many Romanian children were studied?
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How many were adopted before the age of 2?
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How many were adopted by the age of 4?
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How large was the control group of British children adopted by 6 months?
There were 52 children.
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What age intervals were they assessed at?
Age 4, 6, 11 and 15.
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What was assessed?
Their physical, cognitive and social development.
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How were these assessed?
Interviews with parents and teachers.
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How did the Romanian orphans lag behind the British counterparts?
They were physically smaller, weighed less and classified as mentally retarded.
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What had happened by the age of 4?
The Romanian orphans that had been adopted before 6 months had caught up with their British counterparts.
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What problems did the Romanian orphans have, if adopted after 6 months?
They showed disinhibited attachments and had problems with peer relationships.
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What does this suggest about long-term consequences?
They are less severe if children have the opportunity to form attachments.
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What did Le Mare and Audet study?
They did a longitudinal study of 36 Romanian orphans adopted by Canadian families.
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What were the dependent variables of this study?
Physical growth and health.
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How did the orphans differ to a matched control group at the age of 4 and a half?
They were physically smaller.
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What were the findings?
The difference had vanished by 10 and a half years, suggesting recovery is possible from the effects of institutionalisation.
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What did Zeanah et al find?
Children who had spent 90% of their lives in an institution showed signs of disinhibited attachment.
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What are the effects of institutionalisation?
Physical underdevelopment (Deprivation dwarfism), Intellectual underfunctioning, Disinhibited attachment, Anaclitic depression and Poor Parenting.
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Evaluation of Effects of institutionalisation: Individual differences-
Some children are not as strongly affected as others. Rutter suggest that it might have been that some children received special attention and were able to experience early attachment.
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Evaluation of Effects of institutionalisation: Application+
Research has allowed us to apply our understanding to improve the lives of children placed in care. Today, most babies are adopted within the first few weeks, and they are just as securely attached as non-adoptive families, studied by Singer.
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Evaluation of Effects of institutionalisation: Deprivation-
It is more than likely that damage only occurs when there are multiple risk factors such as poverty, lack of cognitive stimulation and physical conditions being appalling.
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Evaluation of Effects of institutionalisation: Slow development-
A criticism of the research is that it implies that the effects may be irreversible. Le Mare and Audet's findings that physical underdevelopment had improved by age 11, thus suggesting development continues in these children, but at a slower pace.
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What is the internal working model?
The model enables individuals to predict and have expectations about relationships.
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What did Hazan and Shaver design?
A 'Love Quiz'.
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How many responses did they analyse?
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How many responses did they get from men?
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How many responses did they get from women?
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What were the attachment styles percentages?
56%-secure, 25%-avoidant, 19% resistant.
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What type of correlation did they find between attachment type and love experiences?
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What did securely attached adults emphasise?
They emphasised accepting and supporting their partner with flaws, and relationships were more enduring (10 years compared to 5/6).
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What did they find?
They found a relationship between the conception of love and attachment type.
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How were childhood friendships influenced by the internal working model?
Securely attached infants have higher expectations that others are friendly so it enables easier relationships with others.
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How is parenting influenced by the internal working model?
The lack of an internal working model means that individuals lack a reference point to subsequently form relationships with their own children.
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How is romantic relationships influenced by the internal working model?
Securely attached individuals have longer lasting romantic relationships.
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How is mental health influenced by the internal working model?
The lack of attachment during the critical period would result in a lack of the internal working model. Experience of sever neglect could lead to an attachment disorder that is included in the DSM.
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Evaluation of research: Correlational-
The research linking the internal working model with later relationship experiences is correlational, therefore we can't claim it to be cause and effect.
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Evaluation of research: Retrospective-
Studies have relied on recollections, which are likely to be flawed as memories are not always accurate.
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Evaluation of research: Longitudinal study
Simpson et al assessed infant attachment types at 1 and at 16. They found securely attached infants were closer to friends at 16, suggesting attachment type does predict adult relationships.
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Evaluation of research: Overly deterministic-
It is suggested early experience have fixed effects on later adult relationships. However researchers have found instances where participants were experiencing happy adult relationships despite not having being securely attached as infants.
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Evaluation of research: Low correlations-
Fraley conducted a review of 27 samples, and found correlations ranging from 0.5 to 0.1. Such correlations do not suggest that attachment type is very stable.
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Evaluation of research: Alternative
Feeney argues adult attachment patterns may be properties of the relationship rather than the individual. Adult relationships are guided by a self-verification process, so it is the adult secure relationship that is causing the adult attachment type.
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What does attachment lead to?


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Card 3


What is reciprocity?


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Card 4


What is interactional synchrony?


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Card 5


What is imitation?


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