psychological explanations of gender development

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  • Created by: Atlanta
  • Created on: 03-01-13 14:46
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  • psychological explanations of gender development
    • Kohlberg's cognitive development theory
      • A01: -Gender labeling, gender identification based on outward appearance only. -gender stability - gender is consistent over time but not across situations, so gender might change if a person engages in different gender behaviour, - gender constancy, gender is consistent across time and situations, leads to interest in gender-appropriate info.
        • A02 Gender labeling - Thompson found 2 year olds 76% correct in identifying their sex, whereas 3 year olds were 90% correct.
        • A02  Gender stability - Salby and Frey asked children questions such as 'were you a boy or girl when you was born?' answers given showed they didnt recognise traits were stable over time until they were 3/4 years old.
          • A02 Gender constancy - salby and frey: asked questions such as 'if you played football would you be a boy or girl?' children who scored high on both stability and consistency showed greatest interest in same sex models.
        • A02 Genital knowledge - Sandra Bem argues its genital knowledge rather than gender constancy at root of gender development- children shown nude toddler and then asked its gender when dressed in different clothes - 40% or 3-5 year olds conserved gender, of those who didnt 77% failed a genital knowledge test.
          • A02 Methodology - Bem gender constancy measures a childs understanding of social ques for indicating gender ie. what you are wearing.
    • Gender Schema theory
      • A01 (martin and halverson) - basic gender identity insufficient for child to absorb gender schema. -schema affect cognitive processes such as memory and attention. - children learn gender schemas from interactions with others. - more interested in ingroup (same sex) than outgroup (other sex) schemas. - gender beliefs are resilient to change.
      • A01/AID - children exposed to counter stereotypes dont remember them accurately - suggests counter stereotypes may not be the best way to reduce children's gender schema.
      • A02 - Martin and Halverson - when asked to recall pictures, children under 6 recalled gender consistent one (eg male firefighter) than gender inconsistent ones (male nurse).
      • A02 - Bradbard - told 4-9 year olds that certain gender neutral items (eg, burglar alarm and pizza cutter) were either boy or girl items. Participants took greater interest in toys labelled as ingroup and were able to recall more about ingroup item a week later.


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