mind map of psychological explanations for schizophrenia

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  • Created by: alice
  • Created on: 12-12-12 17:34
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    • Psychological Theories
      • Psychodynamic
        • Freud (1924) believed that schizophrenia was the result of 2 related processes: regression to a pre-ego stage and attempts to re-establish ego control
          • If the environment of the schizophrenic has been harsh than an individual may regress to this early stage before the ego was proporly formed and before he/she had developed a realistic awareness of the external world
        • Fromm-Reichmann (1984) ---described 'schizophrengenic mothers' of families who are rejecting, over-protective, dominant and moralistic as important contributory influences in the development of schizophrenia
        • Oltmanns at al (1999) --- shown that parents of schizophrenic children behave differently to parents of other kinds of patient, particularly in the presence of their disturbed offspring. However this could be a consequence of the children's schizophrenia
      • Cognitive
        • Acknowledges the biological role in causing the initial sensory experiences of schizophrenia. Claims the further features of the disorder appear as the individuals attempts to understand those experiences
        • When schizophrenics first experience worrying sensory experiences they turn to others to validate the reality of them. Others fail to confirm the reality of the experiences; the schizophrenic comes to believe that others are hiding/withholding the truth
          • They begin to reject feedback from those around them and develop delusional beliefs that they are being manipulated or persecuted by others
        • Meyer-Lindenberg et al. (2002) ---found evidence for physical basis of cognitive deficits. Link between excess dopamine and the orefrontal cortex and working memory
        • 'Maddness' is a consequence of disbelieving others is supported by a suggested treatment. Yellowlees et al. (2002) developed a machine that produces virtual hallucinations, such as hearing voices, the TV telling you to kill yourself or peoples faces morphing into another. Intention is to show the schizophrenic that their hallucinations are not real. as yet there is no evidence to suggests the treatment will be successful
    • Sociocultural Factors
      • Life Events
        • Occurrence of stressful life events has been associated with a higher risk of schizophrenic episodes. Higher levels of physiological arousal is associated with neurotransmitter changes are thought to be involved
        • Brown and Birley (1968), retrospective study --- found 50% of people experience a stressful life event 3 weeks prior to a schizophrenic episode; 12% 9 weeks prior. Control sample reported low unchanging level of stressful events over the same period, suggesting the stressful life event was the trigger
        • Hirsch et al. (1996), prospective study. ---followed 71 schizophrenic patients over 48 weeks. Clear that life events made a significant cumulative contribution in 12 months proceeding relapse rather than having a more concentrated effect in the period just prior to the schizophrenic episode
        • Van Os et al. (1994) ---reported a link between life events and the onset of schizophrenia. Patients were not more likely to have had a stressful life event in the 3 months proceeding the onset of the illness. Those who had experienced a major life event went on the have lower relapse rates
        • Evidence suggests that the link between stressful life events and the onset of schizophrenia is only correlational. It could be the beginnings of the disorder that causes the life event
      • Labelling Theory
        • If a person deviates from the rules of social normality they may be given the label of 'schizophrenia'. Once this label is given it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy that promotes the development of other schizophrenic symptoms
        • Scheff (1974) ---evaluated 16 studies explicitly related to labelling theory. 13 were constant with the theory.
        • Rosenhan (1973), pseudo-patients --- found that once the 'label' os schizophrenia had been applied the diagnosis continued to influence the behaviours of staff toward the patient when it was no longer warrented.
    • Family Relationships
      • Expressed Emotion (EE)
        • EE is a family communication style that involves criticism, hostility and emotional over-involvement. The negative emotional climate arouses the patient and leads to stress beyond the coping mechanism, triggering a schizophrenic episode
        • Linszen et al. (1997) ---a patient returning to a high EE family is 4x more likely to relapse than a patient returning to a low EE family
        • Kalafi and Torabit (1996) --- found a higher prevalence of EE in Iranian culture (overprotective mothers and rejecting fathers) was one of the main causes of schizophrenic relapses
        • Issue as to whether EE is the cause or effect of the schizophrenia.
        • Led to an effective therapy, where EE families are shown how to reduce EE
          • Hegarty et al. (1991) ---found that the therapy can significantly reduce relapse rates. But. not clear if it was the EE intervention or other family interventions may have helped
        • Hegarty et al. (1991) ---found that the therapy can significantly reduce relapse rates. But. not clear if it was the EE intervention or other family interventions may have helped
      • Double-bind Theory
        • Bateson et al (1956) suggested that children who frequently receive contradicting messages from their parents are likely to develop schizophrenia
        • E.g. a mother saying 'I love you' but turns away in disgust. The child has 2 conflicting messages on 2 levels of communication. The child's ability to respond is incapacitated by the conflictions as one invalid
        • Berger (1965) ---found that schizophrenics reported a higher recall of double-bind statements from their mothers than non-schizophrenics. however recall may be affected by the schizophrenia
        • Liem (1974) ---measured patterns of communication in families with a schizophrenic child and found no difference compared to normal families
        • Hall and Levin (1980) ---analysed data from previous studies. Found no difference between families with and without a schizophrenic member in the degree to which verbal and non-verbal communication were in agreement




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