African-American Progress by 1950: Social, economic and political equality

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  • Progress by 1950
    • Social
      • Progress
        • Harlem Renaissance - jazz musicians (Duke Ellington) - RISING SELF CONFIDENCE!
        • Education - Tuskagee Institute, Fisk College and Howard College were set up to educate blacks.
        • New black leaders - e.g. Marcus Garvey - blacker was better.
      • Problems
        • Blacks still not treated as equals.
          • In 1896 Plessey V. Ferguson - blacks were separate but equal.
        • Progress was in the North - Jim Crow Laws in the South.
          • 1881 - 1915 most facilities such as trains, streetcars, restaurants, schools, churches, cemeteries, theatres, stations and parks became segregated by state laws.
          • More money spent on white facilities than black.
        • Blacks live in ghettoes - higher rents for blacks.
    • Political
      • Progress
        • 13th Amendment - abolished slavery in 1865.
          • Not implemented in the South.
        • 14th Amendment - granted citizenship to all former male slaves in 1868.
          • Not implemented in the South.
        • 15th Amendment - the right to vote 'shall not e denied... on account of race, colour, or previous condition of servitude.
          • 1944 Smith V. Allwright - declared the exclusion of blacks from primaries unconstitutional (under the terms of the 15th Amendment).
        • In 1896 Plessey V. Ferguson - blacks were separate but equal.
        • US Justice Department set up a Civil Rights Section in 1875 to challenge lynching's.
          • In the South 1940-47 the number of blacks who voted increased from 3% to 12%.
            • Voting restrictions: literacy tests, poll taxes (blacks could not afford them) and grandfather clauses.
        • Problems
          • Whites wished to limit the power of blacks by 'gerrymandering' - difficult for blacks to gain a majority based on the way constituencies were divided up.
          • Voting restrictions: literacy tests, poll taxes (blacks could not afford them) and grandfather clauses.
      • Economic
        • Progress
          • 'Great Migration' in the North - WWI and WWII - chance for blacks and whites to live together.
          • Fair employment practices commission was set up.
            • 213 cases it heard were dismissed.
            • Set an important precedent which allowed blacks to challenge unfair discrimination
              • 213 cases it heard were dismissed.
          • Roosevelt's New Deal - provided jobs, training and housing schemes for blacks.
        • Problems
          • Mot slaves staying in sharecropping and penniless labour.
          • Poorly paid and were often the last to be employed and the first to be sacked

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