production methods

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  • Production methods
    • mass customization
      • flexible components-often computer controlled
      • flexible and multi-skilled workers
      • combines low unit costs with flexibility to meet customers individual equipment
      • many common components
      • expensive product redesign may be needed to allow key components to be switched to allow variety
      • flow production of products with many standardized components but customized diffrences
      • expensive flexible capital equipment needed
    • batch production
      • faster production with lower unit costs than job production
      • some economies of scale
      • some flexibility in design of product in each batch
      • labour and machinery must be flexible to switch to making batches of other designs
      • high level of stocks at each production stage
      • group of identical products pass through each stage together
      • unit cost likely to be higher than with flow production
    • flow production
      • low unit costs due to working of machines, high labour productivity and economies of scale
      • high steady demand for standardized products
      • expensive to set up flow-line machinery
      • specialized, often expensive, capital equipment
      • inflexible- often very difficult and time consuming to switch from one type of product to another
      • mass production of standardized products
    • Job production
      • single one off items
      • high unit  production costs
      • highly skilled workrs
      • wide range of tools and equipment needed
      • high level of worker motivation
      • time consuming
      • able to undertake specialist projects or jobs, often with high value added
    • choosing between these methods depends upon:
      • availability of other resourses
      • size of the market
      • market demand exists for products adapted to specific customer requirement
      • the amount of capital


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