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  • Plato
    • Theory of knowledge:
      • World around us is an illusion
      • Senses deceived by appearances- unreliable
      • Plato: most important task- Seek knowledge, searching beyond the appearances of the word
      • True knowledge: gained through the use of our mind- By rational thought
    • The analogy of the cave: Differences between the appearances of the world and the reality
      • Prisoners=Ordinary people- Deceived by senses
      • Shadow play= Illusion by the senses- Can't access reality
      • Cave=Visible world- Body imprisons soul
      • Journey out of cave= Discovery of true knowledge
      • Sun= Form of the good- Ultimate goal to gain knowledge of sun
      • Return of the prisoner=Trying to enlighten people
    • The Forms
      • Plato: Behind every object& every concept, there is an unseen reality- "FORM"
      • Every particular has a Form
      • Particulars( imperfect) are in the world of experience
      • Forms= Source of all knowledge
      • Forms- Not made upon on physical matter
      • Forms are consistent, they are unchangeable &eternal
      • Form of Good= Central to existence- It is principle of order
        • Gives rise to all knowledge: highest task of philosopher gain full knowledge of FOG
      • Forms are beyond our senses
    • Plato's understanding of body&soul:
      • Body: Physical matter -Part of the physical matter, constantly changing
        • Not truly real- Cannot access ROTF, never grasp full truth
      • Soul: Immaterial-Belongs to WOF
        • Not physical, soul is immortal&unchanging.Posses true knowledge
      • Mind- Lies between the body&soul, through reason it can access soul
        • Minds wishes to develop knowledge , body distracts with physical desires
    • Dawkins: ideals are passed down genetically from generation- "memes"
    • St Augustine: Evil things do not really exist- simply privations of goodness= The absence of goods
    • "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance- Plato
    • “It is not reason which is the guide of life, but custom"- Hume
    • “What is essential is invisible to the eye.”-Saint-Exupery


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