Background of Plato...
Follower of Socrates
Argued that this world is like the cave that traps people's souls
True reality can be found in the realm of the forms
Only a philosopher knows this as they are able to understand the truth
The ordinary person is too distracted by their everyday experience
Analogy of the cave.
Prisoners - ordinary people
Outside world - truth and reality
Shadows - illusions
Escaped prisoner - philosopher searvhing for truth
Chains - breaking free from the senses and using mind to gain knowledge
Sun - form of good
Returning prisoner - enlightened philosopher
Remember: brief retell of the story, focus on the meaning behind it
Plato's philosophy in the analogy.
Plato argued that empirical knowledge is flawed and we must escape from this world and only use a priori knowledge to know the truth.
Plato was a dulist, he argued for the two realms apperances and reality
Plato stressed that philosophers should be rulers in society because they can break free from the material world and gain knowledge of the truth.
Plato believed that an ultimate good existed and knowledge of the good is the highest knowledge a human is capable of.
Plato and the world of forms.
The world of forms...
Each form is one
The world of apperences...
There are many
Always coming in and out of existence
Always changing into something else
A form is a perfect idea of something.
World of apperences - this world
World of reality - the forms
Evertything in this world is a copy of its perfect form
Characteristics of the forms...
Archetype for all things that physically exist
The form of the good.
Plato called the form of the good the highest form because it gave life to the other forms, these include truth, justice and beauty.
Evaluation of the forms.
Some parts are a posteriori - based on experience
Alanolgy makes it easier to understand
Encourages us to not accept things at face value
Helps us to understand imperfections in the world
Forms could just be ideas in the mind
Unclear link between the worlds
The third man argument
No proof that the forms exist
He is not clear what exists there - evil suffering