Plant cell structure

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  • Created by: Laura
  • Created on: 27-04-14 10:13
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  • Plant cell structure
    • Plant cells are also eukaryotic. They therefore have a distinct nucleus and membrane bound organelles, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts
    • Leaf Palisade cell
      • Typical plant cell. Its function is to carry out photo-synthesis
      • Long, thin cells that form continuous layer to absorb sunlight
      • Numerous chloroplasts that arrange themselves in the best positions to collect the maximum amount of light
      • Large vacuole that pushes the cytoplasm and chloroplasts to the edge of the cell
    • Chloroplasts
      • Vary in shape and size but are typically disc shaped
      • The chloroplast envelope is a double plasma membrane that surrounds the organelle. Highly selective about what it allows to enter and leave the chloroplast
      • The grana are stacks of up to 100 disc like structures called thylakoids. Within this is the photo-synthetic pigments called chlorophyll.
      • The stroma is a fluid filled matrix where the second stage of photo-synthesis takes place.
      • Function = to harvest sunlight and carrying out photo-synthesis
      • Granal membranes provide large surface area, fluid of the stroma possesses all the enzymes needed to carry out the second stage of photo-synthesis
      • Contain both DNA and ribosomes so they can quickly and easily manufacture proteins needed for photo-synthesis
    • Cell wall
      • Cell wall consists of microfibrils of cellulose embedded in a matrix.
      • There is a thin layer, called the middle lamella which marks the boundary between the adjacent cell walls and cements them together
      • They provide mechanical strength in order to prevent the cell bursting under pressure
      • To give mechanical strength to the plant as a whole
      • To allow water to pass along it and so contribute to the movement of water through the plant


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