Piliavin et al 

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  • Piliavin et al
    • Method
      • Sample
        • Opportunity sample  4450 men and women passengers
      • Design
        • Field Experiment independent measures design snapshot study
        • Independent variables
          • - type of victim drunk/ cane - race of victim  presence of model -size of the group
        • Dependent variables
          • Time taken to help - number of people who offered help
      • Materials/ apparatus
        • Liquor bottle and black cane
    • Background
      • Murder of Kitty Genovese attacked with 38 neighbours hearing
      • Bystander behaviour less willing if others around
      • Diffusion of responsibility in a large group each person feels less responsible
    • Aims
      • Effect of variables on helping behaviour
        • Race, drunk or with cane , modelling and group size
    • Procedure
      • 103 trials each trial a 7 1/2 minute long journey on New York subway each trial had 4 students
      • Victim stood in the centre of critical area and collapsed after 70 seconds stayed there until helped or train stopped
      • 38 trials victim smelled of liquor the other 65 trials he carried a cane
      • 4 model conditions either stood in critical area or adjacent area helping after 70 seconds after collapse or 150 seconds after collapse
      • observer 1 noted race sex and location of people in critical area and RSL of who helped
      • observer 2 noted RSL in adjacent area and how long it took to help after collapse / after helping of model
      • Both observers recorded comments from passengers
    • Results
      • More likely to receive help with cane than drunk 95% v 50
      • Help was faster with cane, 87% helped before model only 17% of drunk were helped
      • Blacks received help less quickly than whites
      • More males helped despite less passengers being male
      • The early model had more of an effect that the late model
        • Diffusion of responsibility was not found in this study
    • Things to Remember
      • All victims were male
      • Its an experiment with observational techniques as there is  an IV

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