P1 OCR ( physics)

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  • Created by: Abi_xx
  • Created on: 27-04-14 17:40
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  • Physics (P1) The Earth in the Universe
    • Waves
      • Longitudinal eg. Sound
        • Particles vibrate backwards and forwards about the normal position
        • Particles move backwards and forwards in the same plane as the direction of wave movement
      • Transverse eg. Light and Water ripples ( all E.M waves )
        • Particles vibrate up and down in its normal position
        • Particles move up and down at 90 degrees to the wave movement direction
      • Disturbance patterns that transfer energy without matter
      • Features
        • Amplitude : maximum disturbance caused by a wave
        • Wavelength : distance between 2 corresponding points on 2 adjacent disturbances
        • Frequency : Number of waves produced in 1 second ( Hertz, Hz)
      • Travel
        • Constant speed : increased frequency = decreased wavelength
        • Decreased frequency = increased wavelength
        • Constant frequency : decreased wave speed = decreased wavelength
        • Increased wave speed = increased wavelength
    • The Earth
      • Processes as evidence of the Earth's structure
        • Erosion
          • erased traces of impact craters
          • Rock layers (compacted sediment) produced by weathering and erosion
        • Craters
          • Moon full of impact craters from meteors
        • Mountain Formation
          • The Earth's surface would have been eroded to sea level if new mountains weren't being formed
        • Folding
          • A huge force over a period of time is needed to fold rocks in half
        • Fossils (sedimentary rock)
        • Rock radioactivity (measured by radioactive dating)
      • Structure
        • Thin Rocky Crust
          • - Thickness 10-100km  -Oceanic crust lies beneath the oceans   -Continental crust forms continents
        • Mantle
          • - Extends almost halfway to Earth's centre - Has a higher density and different composition to rock crust  - Very hot but under pressure
        • Core
          • - Accounts for > Earth's radius   -Decay of radioactive elements releases energy keeping interior hot   -Made of nickel and iron with liquid outer and solid inner parts
      • Tectonic Plates
        • Float on Earth's mantle and can move apart, towards or past each other
        • Lines where plates meet called boundaries. Usually where volcanoes, earthquakes and mountain formations occur.
          • Earthquakes detected with instruments such as seismographs
            • Produce P and S waves
    • The Universe
      • Solar System
        • Formed about 5000 million years ago
        • Size: Sun, Planet, Moon, Comet, Asteroid Belt ( between Mars and Jupiter)
        • Sun only 500 million yrs older than Earth
          • Energy comes from nuclear fusion
      • Approximatly 14000 million yrs old
      • Distances
        • Parallax
        • Relative Brightness
        • Light ( 300000km/s ) travels at high finite speeds
        • Red Shift
        • Radiation ( visible light, ultraviolet and infrared )


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